Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new
English syllabus for secondary school
1.1 Methodology as a science
1.1.1 Present-day issues of foreign
language teaching at secondary school
1.1.2 Current concepts in secondary
school graduates EFL
Chapter 2. Theory
of multiple intelligences
2.1 Gardner’s theory
2.1.4 Interpersonal Intelligence
2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
2.1.8 Naturalistic Intelligence
2.2. Psychological analysis of
Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English
intelligences in teaching English learners to the senior
forms of secondary
3.1.1 Development of students’ speaking and
3.1.2 Use of the World Wide Web in teaching
English to secondary school graduates
3.1.3 Use of the VIDEO in teaching English
to secondary school graduates
The theme of the
present university degree thesis is “ Multiple
Intelligences as Strategy for
teaching EFL to High School Graduates “.
The topicalityof the research
is stipulated by rapid changes in education
communication etc., caused by the development of
The aim of the
university degree thesis is include the Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for
TEFL to High school students .
Methods of the
-experience of noted
-research of literature.
The theoretical value of the
paper consists in using the results of the research in the EFL teaching.
The practical value
— a good opportunity of using at the lessons of English on secondary school.
It helps to achieve the best results in teaching English.
The structure of the
The paper consists: The
Introduction, Chapter 1, where I have considered “Methodology as a science” ,
Chapter 2, “The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”,
And Chapter 3 “Learning
environment in teaching English conversation”, in the end of the paper I’ve
done the conclusions of the research , and used the certain literature.
Principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory
The following principles are
a condensation of J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner’s
-Intelligence is not
singular: intelligences are multiple.
-Every person is a unique
blend of dynamic intelligences.
-Intelligences vary in
development, both within and among individuals.
-All intelligences are
-Multiple intelligences can
be identified and described.
-Every person deserve
opportunities to recognize and develop the
multiplicity of intelligences.
-The use of one of the
intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence.
-Personal background density
and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all
-All intelligences provide
alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless
of age or circumstance.
-A pure intelligence is
-Developmental theory applies
to the theory of multiple intelligences.
-Any list of intelligences is
subject to change as we learn more about multiple intelligences.
According to Howard Gardner,
as presented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences,
human intelligence has the following criteria:
-Potential Isolation by Brain
-The Existence of Idiot
[Autistic] Savants, Prodigies, and other Exceptional Individuals.
-An Identifiable Core
Operation or Set of Operations.
-A Distinctive Developmental
History, along with a Definable Set of Expert "End-State"
-An Evolutionary History and
-Support from Experimental
-Support from Psychometric
-Susceptibility to Encoding
in a Symbol System.
Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new syllabus
for secondary school
Comparing old and
the new English teaching syllabi for secondary
schools one can clearly see
Let’s begin with the introductory
word. The introductory word of the old
syllabus covers only the
explanation of practical and educational
purposes of English learning
and end-goals of learning language
(listening, speaking, reading
and writing). The introductory part of the
new syllabus includes:
2.Levels of speech
3.The principles of the
4. Educational purposes.
5. Grounds of content.
6. Methodological foundation
(basis) of modern teaching and learning
7. Control and essessment.
essessment of pupils’ achievements (4 levels: elementary,
middle,sufficient, high) have
a special place in the new syllabus. Such
information is not included
into the old syllabus.
According to the new
sullabus teaching English starts from the
Analyzing the topics of
conversation we can see that the old syllabus
gives us three main topics
from the fifth to the eleventh form: A Pupil and
His Environment; Ukraine;
English-Speaking Countries. The new
syllabus provides with 6
topics already in the second form: About
myself, My Family and
Friends, School Life, Recreation, Nature, Man,
The Life of Society and 8
topics from the third to the 11th form.
communicative unit we find there speech functions and
examples of functional
exponents in the new syllabus, which are
not mentioned in the old
Language competence includes
vocabulary, grammar and phonetics in
both syllabi, but in the old
syllabus the number of lexical units in each
form is fixed.
sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence
are not defined in the old
At the end of each year
specific demands to speech competence of pupils
dialogue, reading, writing) are defined in the new
In general, the new syllabus
is much but specific wider.
1.1. Methodology as a
The term “методика”
has several correspondences in English: methodology, methods and
methodics. The word methodology will be used for “методика” and
“методологія” of teaching English as foreign language
There are several
definitions of this term:
Methodology (from Greek
methodos – спосіб, шлях
дослідження або пізнання, logos – поняття, вчення) is a framework of organization of teaching which relates
linguistic theory to pedagogical principles and techniques.[37,p.5]
Methodology is a branch
of pedagogy which dealing with peculiarities of teaching a certain
Methodology of FLT is a
body of scientifically tested theory concerning the teaching of
foreign languages in school and other education institutions.[37,p.17]
Methodology is a system
of principles and ways of organization and construction of
theoretical and practical activity as well as teaching about this
Methodology is a science
which studies aims, contents, means, principles, techniques and methods
of a system of instruction and education.[37,p.15]
Methodology is a
branch of didactics which relates a linguistic theory to pedagogical
principles and techniques.
The scholars’ve considered
the relation of methodology of FLT to other sciences ( supplement 1).
The objective of the present
research is integrating some aspects of knowledge of English,
didactics, psychology, linguistics to formulate basic professional and
pedagogical habits and skills. In G. Rogova’s opinion, methodology
covers three main points:
aims of TEFL;
content of TEFL;
methods ( supplement 2),
principles and techniques of TEFL.
But it becomes evident
that the three components do not constitute the whole
teaching/learning process. The activities of learners and teachers,
their interaction (symmetrical or assymetrical) and the role of
instruction materials are the outstanding constituents. The task of
methodology is to integrate the relationships among them and to
draft requirements for each of them.
Teaching a subject is
viewed here not simply as the delivery of prescribed formulate,
imparting a certain amount of knowledge, but also developing habits
and skills, but also as activity.
To attain these aims in
the most effective way constitutes the main subject of any
methodology. The methodology determines the laws, principles, aims,
content, methods, techniques and means (media) of teaching. The actual
teaching of a language may differ in the analysis of what is to
taught, in the planning of lessons, in the teaching techniques used,
in the type and amount of teaching done thought mechanical means
and finally, in the testing of what has been learned.
Basic Categories Of
The methodology of TEFL
seems to embody such basic categories on which there is general
agreement among those who have studied the subject: methods, principles,
techniques, aims and means of instruction.
There is no unanimity
regarding the term method either. In G. Rogova’s et. al. view “method
is a technological operation, structural and functional component of
the teacher’s and learner’s activity, realized in techniques and
principles of instruction. A method is a model of instruction based
on definite theoretical provision, principle, techniques and aims of
A method is also a
specific set of teaching techniques and materials generally backed by
A method determines what
and how much taught (selection), the order in which it is taught
(gradation), and how the meaning and form are conveyed (presentation).
Since presentation, drill and repetition may also be the concern of
the teacher, the analysis of the teaching/leaning process must first
determine how much is done by the method and how much by the
Aim is a direction or
guidance to establish a course or procedure to be followed. The
teacher should formulate long-term goals, interim aims and short-term
objectives. What changes he can bring about in his pupils at the
end of the week, month, year, course, and each particular lesson. Hence,
aims are planned results for pupils learning a FL. The aims are
stipulated by syllabus and other official directives. They are:
practical, instructional, educational and developing (formative).
Practical aims cover
habits and skills which pupils acquire in using a foreign language.
A habit is an automatic response to specific situation, acquired
normally as a result of repetition and learning.
A skill is a combination
of useful habits serving a definite purpose and requiring application
of certain knowledge.
developed the pupils mental capacities and intelligence in the
process of FLL (foreign language learning).
Educational aims help the
pupils extend their knowledge of the world in which they live.
Formative or developing
aims help develop in learns sensual perception, motor, kinesthetic,
emotional and motivating spheres.
Principles are basic
underlying theoretical provisions which determine the choice of
methods, techniques and others means of instruction.
Technique in the
methodology of TEFL is the manner of presentation, demonstration,
consolidation and repetition.
Means is something by
the use or help of which a desired goal is attained or made more
Present-day issues of TEFL
A critical review of
methods currently employed in TEFL/TESL has shown no consensus on
the effective way to facilitate and accelerate English learning. A
shift has been made from teacher-centered activity to student-centered,
some methodologists even claim that learning is more important than
teaching (Michael West, Humanistic Approach, Silent Way).
Though many young
teachers still teach the way they had been taught, it can’t be
denied that current thinking in methodology constitutes a challenge
to convention thinking about language teaching.
One of the conventional
methods of TEFL is the Grammar-Translation method
The goal of foreign
language (FL) study, using this method, is to learn a language in
order to read its literature or to benefit from the mental
discipline and intellectual development that result from FL study.
G-TM is a way of studying language that approaches the language
first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by
application of the knowledge to the task of translating sentences
and texts into and out of the target language. The first language
is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of the
Reading and writing are
the major focus: little or no systematic attention is paid to
speaking or listening.
In a typical G-T text,
the grammar rules are presented and illustrated, a list of vocabulary
items is presented with their translation equivalents, and translation
exercise a prescribed.
the sentence is the
basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is
devoted to translating sentences into and out of the target language,
and it is this focus on the sentence that is a distinctive feature
of the method.
of grammar rules, which are
then practised through translation Accuracy is emphasized. Students are
expected to attain high standarts in translation, because of “the
high priority attached to meticulous standards of accuracy which was
a prerequisite for passing the increasing number of formal written
examinations that grew up during the century"
Grammar is taught
deductively, that is, by presentation and study
The student’s native language
is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable
comparisons to be made between the FL and the student’s mother tongue. (G-TM
dominated in FLT from the 1840s to the 1940s, and in modified form it continues
to be widely used in some parts of the world today).
In the mid- and late
nineteenth centuries opposition to G- TM gradually developed in several
European countries. This Reform Movement, as it was referred to, laid the
foundations for the development of a new way of language teaching and raised
controversies that have continued to the present day.
From the 1880s, however,
practically minded linguists like Henry Sweet in England, Wilhelm Victor in
Germany and Paul Passy in France began to promote their intellectual leadership
needed to give reformist ideas greater credibility and acceptance.
The main principles of their
the study of the spoken
an inductive approach to the
teaching of grammar;
teaching new meanings through
establishing associations within the target language rather than
by establishing associations with the mother
translation should be
avoided, although the mother tongue could be used in order to explain new words
or to check comprehension.
The idea put forward by
members of the Reform Movement had a role to play in developing principles of
FLT out of naturalistic approach to language learning. This led to what has
been termed ‘natural method’ and ultimately led to the development of what came
to be known as the Direct Method.
In the 1920s and 1930s
H.E.Palmer, A.S.Hornby and other British linguists developed an approach to
methodology that involved systematic principles of selection (the procedures by
which lexical and grammatical content was chosen), gradation (principles by
which the organization and sequencing of content were determined), and
presentation (techniques used for presentation and practice of items in a
course). Their general principles were referred to as the oral approach to
language teaching. The characteristic feature of the approach was that new
language points were introduced and practised situationally.
Later the terms Structural
Situational Approach and Situational Language Teaching came into common
Like the Direct Method,
Situational Language Teaching (SLT) adopts an inductive approach to the
teaching of grammar. The meaning of words or structures is not to be given
through translation in either the native tongue or the target language but is
to be induced from the way the form is used in the situation. H.Palmer believed
that "if we give the meaning of a new word, either by translation into the
home language or by an equivalent in the same language, as soon as we
introduced it, we weaken the impression which the word makes on the mind".
Explanation is therefore
discouraged, and the learner is expected to deduce the meaning of a particular
structure or vocabulary item from the situation in which it is presented.
In 1939 the university of
Michigan developed the first English Language Institute in the United States.
It specialized in the training of teachers of English as a foreign language and
in teaching English as a second or foreign language.
The approach to FLT became
known as the Audio-Lingual Method. According to this method FL was taught by
systematic attention to pronunciation and by intensive oral drilling of its
basic sentence patterns.
The language teaching
theoreticians and methodologists who developed Audio-lingualism (Charles Fries,
William Moulton) believed that the use of the student’s native language should
be forbidden at early levels .
Translation as a teaching
device may be used where students need or benefit from it. It was one of the
principles of Communicative Language Teaching the origins of which are
to be found in the changes in the British language teaching
tradition dating from the late 1960’s.
Looking back from the
vantage point of 1990’s we can see that the Direct Method,
Audio-Lingual and Communicative Methods have their rationale and
supporters, yet they are not equally efficient for all learners, and
for all teachers, and for all situations.
The methodology must be
flexible and electric, based on a careful selection of facets of
various methods and their integration into a cohesive, coherent
procedure. Of central importance are positive attitudes of learners
and teachers; they should permeate all stages of teaching/learning
process, make every learning hour a stimulating, motivating experience
leading to pleasure and success in language acquisition.
The teacher’s pivotal
responsibility is to imbue students with confidence and self-esteem,
emotional security and a well-integrated personality that will make
them life-long learners.
The emerging “paradigm
shift” in teaching strategies needs new generalizations which will
lead to improved attitudes, and better results in teaching/learning
process, which will be beneficial both for learners and teachers
It is difficult to
predict whether the Communicative Method will last any longer than
its predecessors but it can’t be denied that the work of the
innovators constitutes a challenge to convention thinking about
language teaching, which is unfortunately “stubbornly” adhered by many
classroom teachers and teacher-practitioners.
What is current
methodology? Do we have to abandon all we have learned of the
Audio-Lingual method, the Direct Method (DM), and start anew? Thus far,
the suggestions for change have been gentle, but we have not been
left with a vacuum to be filed. Judging from techniques and trends
of the past few years, we can see that current thinking methodology
seems to be in the direction of: – relaxation of some extreme
restrictions of A-LM and DM; – development of techniques requiring a
more active use of the students mental detail.
Let us examine these two
trends in some detail.
Teachers have found that
a close adherence to the listening-speaking-reading-writing order has
not always been effective and brought the desired results.
On the other hand a lack
of such adherence has not proved harmful. They has also called into
question the theory that speech is primary and reading and writing
are secondary manifestations. Such theoretical and experimental
rethinking has resulted in the current trend toward teaching and
testing the various language skills in more integrated way. The close
procedure provides an interesting and thought-provoking exercise, which
trains the students to look carefully at all structural clues and
to range around within a semantic field for related concerts. It is
a good preparation for careful reading and a useful overall written
The teachers no longer
feel the need to defer or widely separate reading and writing
lessons from listening and speaking activities.
Similarly the prohibition
against using the student’s native language has been considerably
relaxed. It is just more efficient to give explanations and
instructions in the native language because it affords more time for
really meaningful practice in English.
Notable among current
trends is the more practical recognition of the varying needs of
learners. If, for instance, a learner needs a reading knowledge of
English above all else, then reading must have priority, and the
learner must learn this skill through specific guided practice in
Another question is
whether the teacher should polish learner’s structure so as to
exclude a change of making a mistake. That “prohibition” of errors
way largely due to the fear that mistakes would contribute to the
creation of a bad habit. Now that the “habit theory” of language
acquisition has been challenged and creative aspects of language
learning emphasised, the teacher is freed from this fear. Student’s
creative involvement is more important to the learning process than the
mere avoiding of errors (this doesn’t mean that the teacher should
not correct the student and provide necessary drill when appropriate).
Teachers for some time
have felt a need of moving from A-LM (with its rigid structure
pattern) to a less controlled situation in which the student can
communicate his own ideas. Classroom activities may be grouped into
Examples of completely
manipulative activity would be:
a) a drill in which the
students merely repeat sentences after the teacher;
b) a simple substitution
drill ( by showing a picture or explaining a scene from the students
experience). The latter exercise could be made into a predominantly
manipulative drill, that is it would include a small element of communication).
In a more advanced class the
students retell a story the teacher has given them. Finally, an example of pure
communication would be a free conversation among the members of the class, such
as a role-playing, conference, etc.)
Theory (CC-LT) or the Trend toward Cognitive Activity
The trend toward a more
active use of the students’ mental powers probably represents the most
important effort of the cognitive theory of language acquisition. Advocates of
the A-LM often advised the teacher to keep students "active" — since,
they said, when a student is active he is learning. They advised him to have
all his students saying things aloud in English during as much of the class
period as possible. This was the chief reason for doing so much choral work. In
this way the greatest number of
students could be actively
participating — "using the language" as it was called .
Language learning is viewed
as rule acquisition, not habit formation. Instruction is often individualized:
learners are responsible for their own learning. Reading and writing are once
again as important as listening and speaking; errors are viewed as inevitable.
But the utility of such
"active" use of the language has been challenged by proponents of
CC-LT. They point out that the mere mechanical repetition of language forms is
in reality passive rather than active learning, for it is primarily —
sometimes almost entirely — a physical, mechanical sort of activity. It does
not begin to engage the student’s full mental powers. CC-LT, as a FLT method,
is based on the following principal assumptions:
1. language is a system of
signs, governed by its own rules;
2. CC-LT implies
recognition of form, perception of meaning, relations of universals and
particulars, generalisation and analogy;
3. the assimilation of
material is directly proportional to the degree of its
4. language is more than a
system of habits which can be formed through
5. language learning is a
creative process, therefore the student should
be as mentally active as
possible in all assigned work:
6. a) drills and exercises
should be meaningful;
b) deductive use of exercises
designed to teach grammar structures (deductive explanations, i.e. rule prior
to practice, starting with the rule and then offering examples to show how this
c) rote learning is to be
d) reading and writing should
be taught at early stages along with
listening and speaking;
e) occasional use of
student’s native language for explanation of new grammar and vocabulary is
The cognitive principles of
learning can conveniently be
summarised under three
1. the need for experience;
2. the process of
3. developmental stages.
These three principles are
not only suited to adult learners but they have been readily adopted in the
primary school, and the following are suggestions for practicing cognitive
principles in the classroom with younger children:
a) Give experience of the
language they are learning — teach them poems, rhymes, songs, tell them
stories, talk to them.
b) Give them activities —
painting, modeling, playing game, etc.
c) Don’t stick rigidly to a
predetermined language syllabus — allow the activities that take place in the
class to range freely and develop naturally and let the occurrence of
stimulating events that happen in the environment influence the vocabulary and
structures that are introduced and practiced in each lesson.
Viewing language learning as
a natural creative process rather than as habit formation, suggests that the
teacher should provide guided practice in thinking in the language rather than
a mere repetition drill. Such mental involvement tends to make language
learning more enjoyable tor the student, — hence improved attitudes and better
It seems also appropriate to
remind ourselves that teaching involves much more than a knowledge of methods.
However well-versed a teacher may be in psychological and linguistic theories,
in techniques and methodologies, his knowledge alone will not assure success.
An even more basic ingredient of all good teaching is the teacher’s attitude
toward his students and his work.
We must recognise the
teacher’s compassionate, intelligent, individual approach to his work as the
essential factor in successful language
To sum it up, language in
CC-LT is viewed as an abstract model, governed by its own rules; language
material is assimilated in blocks, not discretely i.e. in their constitutive
elements; assimilation is directly proportional to comprehension; frequency of
contrast is more important than frequency of repetition. According to this
theory assimilation of language is achieved by conscious control over
phonological, grammatical, and lexical models of a foreign language by way of
conscious learning and analysis.
And, finally, practice and
pedagogical experimenting shows that the priority of a certain methods is not
justified. Some specialists believe that a creative synthesis of provisions of
every method (eclecticism) may yield good results.
1.1.2. Current Concepts in
secondary school graduates EFL
While the field of teaching
English as a foreign language (EFL) to high
school graduates has its own
unique terms and concepts, it often draws
from the professional
vocabulary of other areas of education such as K-
12, adult basic education,
and higher education. This article presents a
selection of such terms and
concepts, discussing them as they are
applied in the adult ESL
context and citing sources where they are
described with adult
immigrant learners in mind. Some terms are broad,
representing theories or
approaches, while others might be more
accurately described as
methods or techniques. Most are mutually
supportive and can be
integrated in instruction to expand and enrich learning in any EFL setting.
Authentic or Alternative
Authentic or alternative
assessment describes efforts to document learner achievement through activities
that require integration and application of knowledge and skills and are based
on classroom instruction. Ideally, these assessments are relevant to real-life
contexts and include activities such as creating a budget, completing a
project, or participating in an interview Authentic assessments are criterion
referenced, in that
criteria for successful
performance are established and clearly articulated. They focus
on the learning process as
well as the products and they include means for learner
reflection. Often, authentic assessments are used in conjunction
with standardized tests to
provide a more complete picture of learner progress.
Examples of authentic assessment include performance-based assessment, learner
self-assessment, and portfolios. Performance-based assessment activities
require learners to integrate acquired knowledge and skills to solve realistic
or authentic problems, such as taking telephone messages, completing an
application, or giving directions. Self assessment refers to checklists, logs,
reflective journals, or
questionnaires completed by
learners that highlight their strategies, attitudes, feelings, and accomplishments
throughout the learning process .
Portfolio assessment consists
of a systematic collection of the learners’ work (such as writing samples,
journal entries, worksheets, recorded speech samples, or standardized test
results) to show individual progress toward meeting instructional objectives .
Computer-Assisted Language Learning
The use of computer-based
technologies for language instruction is known as computer-assisted language
learning (CALL). Computer software, including multimedia applications, and the
Internet and the World Wide Web are examples of such technologies at use in
language programs today.
Computer technologies can
provide a course of instruction, facilitate activities and tasks, or create
opportunities for additional practice . CALL
can also be structured to
promoted teamwork and collaboration among the learners, a necessity for those
programs with limited access to technology . It can be incorporated in
instruction as an integral part of a class, as an option that learners access
individually, or in some combination of class-based and self-access models.
Using technology can
sometimes be difficult. The planning
process should involve
consideration of at least the following elements: the needs and goals of the
program, instructional focus, staffing, software and hardware availability or
accessibility, learners’ learning goals; and learners’ and staffs’ experiences
with and attitudes toward computer use .
Critical Literacy Theory
Critical literacy theory
expands the discussion of literacy practice beyond the basic functions of
reading and writing. Where traditional literacy instruction might focus on
skills such as decoding, predicting, or summarizing, critical literacy theory
encourages critical examination of text, especially the social, political, and
ideological elements present. Based in the assumption that literacy practices
have the capability to
both reflect and shape the
issues and power relationships at play in the larger society, critical literacy
theory seeks to empower learners through development of critical and analytical
literacy skills .
In the general sense,
critical literacy theory encourages teachers to create instructional activities
that help learners use analytical skills to question and respond to such
elements as perspective, purpose, effect, or relevance of what they read and
For example, a teacher might
prompt learners to distinguish fact from
opinion in a newspaper
editorial or to identify an author’s position on a topic and compare it to
their own. The focus is on the learner as decision maker and active interpreter
in reading and writing activities.
Family and Intergenerational Literacy
Family literacy has
traditionally described the use of literacy within the context of the family,
often as related to early childhood development and parental support of
children’s school achievement. Intergenerational literacy broadens that
description, recognizing that relationships between adults and children, both
within and outside the traditional definition of the family unit, affect the
literacy use and development of all involved. Family literacy programs for ESL
populations generally use family and
family relationships as
content and involve at least two generations of participants.
The goals of family and
intergenerational literacy programs are varied. Some focus on the family and
school, seeking to increase parental involvement, improve communication,
increase schools’ responsiveness to communities, and support children’s
academic achievement . Others pursue broader objectives, such as furthering
literacy skills development and positive behaviors linked to reading for both
adults and children. Still others focus on facilitating the reconnection of
generations divided by different linguistic and cultural experiences.
Intelligences and Learning Styles
Multiple intelligences and
learning style preferences both refer to the ways that individuals approach
information processing and learning. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple
intelligences proposes that there are at least seven different abilities that
individuals can develop to solve problems or create products:
bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, and
Each intelligence is
distinguished by its own competencies and skills and directly influences the
way an individual will interpret and utilize information.
Learning styles are the broad preferences that learners tend to exhibit when
faced with new content or problems that need to be solved. These styles
encompass cognitive, affective, and behavioral elements, and describe learners
in terms of their preferences for group or individual learning contexts, the
degree to which they separate details
from complex backgrounds
(field dependent vs. field independent), or their affinity for analytic,
abstract perspectives as opposed to more integrated, comprehensive ones
(analytic vs. global) .
Awareness of different intelligences and learning styles, and individuals’
preferences for them can help teachers create positive learning experiences .
By varying instructional activities to accommodate learners’
visuals, hands-on activities, songs) or by offering options for responses to
instruction (write a paper, create a model, give a demonstration), teachers can
support learners’ access to and understanding of content.
Reflective Teaching, and Action Research
reflective teaching, and action research refer to a teacher-centered approach
to professional and staff development. Like the learner-centered approach to
instruction, which focuses on the needs of the learners and respects them as
partners in the learning process, these approaches to professional development
put practitioners at the center of the process defining, investigating, and
in their own teaching .
These models require
practitioners to become researchers and take a questioning stance towards their
work. Rather than focusing on their deficits, teachers concentrate on their
strengths and interests as means for enhancing their knowledge and teaching
skills . The following steps are usually part of the process: reflecting upon
practice as a means of identifying a problem or question; gathering information
on that problem or question; examining and reflecting on the data gathered;
planning some action based on the information; implementing the action planned;
monitoring and evaluating the changes that may or may not result
from the action; and
collaborating or sharing with colleagues . These
terms and similar variations
are often used interchangeably, their differences typically illustrating the
elements emphasized, in other words, reflective teaching highlights ongoing
self-assessment while action research focuses on planning, implementing, and
evaluating actual changes in the classroom.
is an instructional approach that seeks to contextualize language learning by
involving learners in projects, rather than in isolated activities targeting
specific skills. Project-based learning activities generally integrate language
and cognitive skills, connect to real-life problems, generate high learner
interest, and involve some cooperative or group learning skills . Unlike
instruction where content is organized by themes that relate and contextualize
material to be learned, project-based learning presents learners with a problem
to solve or a product to produce. They must then plan and execute activities to
Projects selected may be complex and require an investment of time and
resources, or they may be more modest in scale. Examples of projects include a
class cookbook, an international food bazaar, a folktale-based story hour at a
local library, a neighborhood services directory, or a class web page . In the
selection of projects and activities, it is important to include learners’
input, as well as to consider carefully how the project will fit with overall
instructional goals and objectives .
Chapter 2. Theory of
2.1. Gardner’s Theory.
Arguing that "reason,
intelligence, logic, knowledge are not synonymous…," Howard Gardner
(1983) proposed a new view of intelligence that is rapidly being incorporated
in school curricula. In his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Gardner expanded
the concept of intelligence to also include such areas as music, spacial
interpersonal knowledge in
addition to mathematical and linguistic ability.
This research discusses the
origins of Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, his definition of
intelligence, the incorporation of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences into
the classroom, and its role in alternative assessment practices.
According to Howard
Gardner, as presented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
Intelligences, human intelligence has the following characteristics:
-A set of skills that enable
a person to resolve genuine problems encountered in life.
-The Ability to create an
effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture.
-The Potential for
recognizing or creating problems, thereby establishing the necessity for the
Howard Gardner said in
his book: “it becomes necessary to say, once and for all, that there can never
be, a single irrefutable and universally accepted list of human intelligences.
Though an exhaustive list
of every intelligence may not be possible, identifying intelligences is
important for at least two reasons:
-Classification of Human
Intellectual Competencies which will allow a better understanding of humanity.
Intellectual Strengths which will enable researchers to communicate more
accurately about the concept of Intellect.
intelligence as "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion product
that are valued in one or more cultural setting". Using biological as well
as cultural research, he formulated a list of seven intelligences. This new
outlook on intelligence differs greatly from the traditional view which
usually recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and computational. The seven
intelligences Gardner defines are:
Linguistic intelligence (or
verbal-linguistic) is the ability to use with clarity the core operations of
language. It involves having a mastery of language. This intelligence includes
the ability to effectively manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically
or poetically. It also allows one to use language as a means to remember
People with linguistic
intelligence have a sensitivity to the meaning of words—the capacity to follow
rules of grammar, and, on carefully selected occasions, to violate them. At a
somewhat more sensory level—a sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, inflections,
and meters of words—that ability which can make even poetry in a foreign
tongue beautiful to hear. And a sensitivity to the different functions of
language—its potential to excite, convince, stimulate, convey information, or
simply to please.
People such as poets, authors, reporters, speakers, attorneys, talk-show hosts,
politicians, lecturers, and teachers may exhibit developed linguistic
intelligence is logical and mathematical ability as well as scientific ability.
It consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think
logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and
Abstraction is fundamental,
reasoning is complex, and problem-solution is natural.
Order and sequence are
significant. There is a drive to know causality as well as the explication of
People such as mathematicians, engineers, physicists, esearchers, astronomers,
and scientists may exhibit developed logical-mathematical intelligence.
2.1.3 Intra-Personal Intelligence
intelligence is the ability to form an accurate model of oneself, and to use
that model to operate effectively in life. At a basic level, it is the capacity
to distinguish feelings of pleasure from emotional pain and , on the basis of
such discrimination, to become more involved in or to withdraw from a
situation. At the most advanced level, interpersonal intelligence is the
capacity to detect and to
symbolize complex and high
differentiated sets of feelings.
People such as some novelists, therapists, sages, psychologists, and
philosophers may exhibit developed intra-personal intelligence.
intelligence is the ability to notice and make distinctions among other
individuals and, in particular, among their moods, temperaments, motivations,
and intentions. Examined in its most elementary form, the inter-personal
intelligence entails the capacity of the young child to detect and discriminate
the various moods of
those around them. In an
advanced form, it permits a skilled adult to read the intentions and
desires—even when those desires have been hidden—of many other individuals
and, potentially, act upon this knowledge.
People such as politicians, religious leaders, and those in the helping
professions may exhibit developed inter-personal intelligence.
The last two intelligences
are separate from each other. Nevertheless, because of their close association
in most cultures, they are often linked together.
2.1.5 Musical Intelligence
Musical intelligence (or
Musical-rhythmic) is the ability to use the core set of musical
elements—pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding the characteristic qualities
of a tone). Auditory functions are required for a person to develop this
intelligence in relation to pitch and tone, but it is not needed for the
knowledge of rhythm. There may be a hierarchy of difficulty involved in various
roles—composition, performance, listening.
People such as singers,
composers, instrumentalists, conductors, and those who enjoy, understand, use,
create, perform, and appreciate music and/or elements of music may exhibit
developed musical intelligence.
2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence
Spatial intelligence (or
visual-spatial) is the capacity to perceive the world accurately, and to be
able to recreate one’s visual experience. It gives one the ability to
manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems. This
intelligence is not limited to visual domains—Gardner notes that spatial
intelligence is also formed in blind children. It entails a number of loosely
related capacities: the ability to recognize instances of the same element; the
ability to recognize transformations of
one element in another; the
capacity to conjure up mental imagery and then to transform that imagery; the
ability to produce a graphic likeness of spatial information; and the like. A
person with a good sense of direction or the ability to move and operate well
in the world would indicate spatial intelligence.
People such as sailors, engineers, surgeons, sculptors, painters,
cartographers, and architects may exhibit developed spatial intelligence.
intelligence is the ability to use one’s mental abilities to coordinate one’s
own bodily movements and the ability to handle objects skillfully. This
intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity
People such as actors, dancers, swimmers, acrobats, athletes, jugglers,
instrumentalists and artisans
may exhibit developed bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
The following definition is
an abbreviation and adaptation by J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of
Howard Gardner’s theory:
Naturalistic intelligence is
the ability to understand, relate to, categorize, classify, comprehend, and
explain the things encountered in the world of nature.
People such as farmers,
ranchers, hunters, gardeners, and animal handlers may exhibit developed
Although the intelligences
are anatomically separated from each other, Gardner claims that the seven
intelligences very rarely operate independently. Rather, the
intelligences are used
concurrently and typically complement each other as individuals develop skills
or solve problems. For example, a dancer can excel in his art only if he has
1) strong musical
intelligence to understand the rhythm and
variations of the music,
2) interpersonal intelligence
to understand how he can inspire or emotionally move his audience through his
movements, as well as
intelligence to provide him with the agility and coordination to complete the
Basis for Intelligence
Gardner argues that there
is both a biological and cultural basis for the multiple intelligences.
Neurobiological research indicates that learning is an outcome of the
modifications in the synaptic connections between cells. Primary elements of
different types of learning are found in particular areas of the brain where
corresponding transformations have occurred. Thus, various types of learning
results in synaptic connections in different areas of the brain. For example,
injury to the Broca’s area of the brain will result in the loss of one’s
ability to verbally
communicate using proper
syntax. Nevertheless,this injury will not remove the patient’s understanding of
correct grammar and word usage.
In addition to biology,
Gardner (1983) argues that culture also plays a large role in the development
of the intelligences. All societies value different types of intelligences.
The cultural value placed
upon the ability to perform certain tasks provides the motivation to become
skilled in those areas. Thus, while particular intelligences might be highly evolved
in many people of one culture, those same intelligences might not be as
developed in the individuals of another.
analysis of Gardner’s Theory
Despite swings of the
pendulum between theoretical and applied concerns, the concept of intelligence
has remained central to the field of psychology. In the wake of the Darwinian
revolution, when scientific psychology was just beginning, many scholars became
interested in the development of intelligence across species. The late 19th and
early 20th centuries were punctuated by volumes that delineated levels of
intelligence across species
and within the human species . Francis Galton (cousin of Charles Darwin) was
perhaps the first psychologically oriented scientist to try to measure the
intellect directly. Though
Galton (1870) had a
theoretical interest in the concept of intelligence, his work was by no means
unrelated to practical issues. A committed eugenicist, he sought to measure
intelligence and hoped, through proper "breeding," to increase the
overall intelligence of the population.
During the following half century, many of the most gifted and influential
themselves with the nature of human intelligence. Although a few investigators
were interested principally in theoretical issues, most seasoned their concerns
with a practical orientation. Thus, Binet and Terman developed the first
general-purpose intelligence tests in their respective countries; Yerkes and
Wechsler created their own influential instruments. Even scientists with a
theoretical bent, like
Spearman and Thurstone , contributed either
directly or indirectly to the
devising of certain measurement techniques and the favoring of particular lines
By midcentury, theories of intelligence had become a staple of psychology
textbooks, even as intelligence tests were taken for granted in many
Still, it is fair to say
that, within scientific psychology, interest in issues of intelligence waned to
some extent. Although psychometricians continued to perfect the instruments
that purported to measure human intellect and some new tests were introduced ,
for the most part, the burgeoning interest in cognitive matters bypassed the
area of intelligence.
This divorce between mainstream research psychology and the "applied
area" of intelligence might have continued indefinitely, but by the late
70s, there were signs of a reawakening of interest in theoretical and research
aspects of intelligence. With his focus on the information-processing aspects
of items in psychological tests, Robert
Sternberg was perhaps the
most important catalyst for this shift,
but researchers from a number
of different areas of psychology have joined in this rediscovery of the
centrality of intelligence .
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
A decade ago, Gardner found that his own research interests were leading him to
a heightened concern with issues of human intelligence. This concern grew out
of two disparate factors, one primarily theoretical, the other largely
As a result of his own studies of the development and breakdown of cognitive
and symbol-using capacities, Gardner became convinced that the Piagetian view
of intellect was flawed. Whereas Piaget had
conceptualized all aspects of
symbol use as part of a single "semiotic function,"
empirical evidence was
accruing that the human mind may be quite modular in design. That is, separate
psychological processes appear to be involved in dealing with linguistic,
numerical, pictorial, gestural, and other kinds of symbolic systems .
Individuals may be
precocious with one form of symbol use, without any necessary carryover to
other forms. By the same token, one form of symbol use may become seriously compromised
under conditions of brain damage, without correlative depreciation of other
symbolic capacities . Indeed, different forms of symbol use appear to be
subserved by different portions of the cerebral cortex.
On a more practical level, Gardner was disturbed by the nearly exclusive stress
in school on two forms of symbol use: linguistic symbolization and
logical-mathematical symbolization. Although these two forms are obviously
important in a scholastic setting, other varieties of symbol use also figure
prominently in human cognitive activity within and especially outside of
school. Moreover, the emphasis on linguistic and logical capacities was
overwhelming in the construction of items on intelligence,
aptitude, and achievement
tests. If different kinds of items were used, or different kinds of assessment
instruments devised, a quite different view of the human intellect might issue
These and other factors led Gardner to a conceptualization of human
intellect that was more capacious. This took into account a wide variety of
human cognitive capacities, entailed many kinds of symbol systems, and
incorporated as well the skills valued in a variety of cultural and historical
settings. Realizing that he was stretching the word
intelligence beyond its
customary application in educational psychology, Gardner proposed the existence
of a number of relatively autonomous human intelligences. He defined
intelligence as the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are
valued in one or more cultural settings, and detailed a set of criteria for
what counts as a human intelligence.
Gardner’s definition and his criteria deviated significantly from established
practices in the field of intelligence . Most definitions of intelligence focus
on the capacities that are important for success in school.
Problem solving is
recognized as a crucial component, but the ability to
fashion a productto write a
symphony, execute a painting, stage a play, build up and manage an
organization, carry out an experimentis not included, presumably because the
aforementioned capacities cannot be probed adequately in short-answer tests.
Moreover, on the canonical
account, intelligence is presumed to be a universal, probably innate, capacity,
and so the diverse kinds of roles valued in different cultures are not
considered germane to a study of "raw intellect."
Investigators search for
items that predict who will succeed in school, even as they drop items that
fail to predict scholastic success. New tests are determined in part by the
degree of correlation with older, already accepted instruments. In sharp
contrast, existing psychometric instruments play no role in Gardner’s formulation.
candidate ability emerges as
an intelligence to the extent that it has recurred as an identifiable entity in
a number of different lines of study of human cognition.
To arrive at his list of intelligences, Gardner and his colleagues examined the
literature in several areas: the development of cognitive capacities in normal
individuals; the breakdown of cognitive capacities under various kinds of
organic pathology; the existence of abilities in "special
populations," such as prodigies, autistic individuals, idiots savants, and
learning-disabled children; forms of intellect that exist in different species;
forms of intellect valued in different cultures; the
evolution of cognition across
the millennia; and two forms of psychological evidencethe results of
factor-analytic studies of human cognitive capacities and the outcome of
studies of transfer and generalization. Candidate capacities that turned up
repeatedly in these disparate literatures made up a provisional list of human
abilities that appeared only once or twice or were reconfigured differently in
diverse sources were abandoned from consideration.
The methods and the
results of this massive survey are reported in detail in Frames of Mind and
summarized in several other publications. Gardner’s provisional list includes
seven intelligences, each with its own component processes and subtypes (see
supplement 3). It is
claimed that, as a species,
human beings have evolved over the millennia to carry out at least these seven
forms of thinking. In a biological metaphor, these may be thought of as
mental "organs" ;
in a computational metaphor, these
may be construed as separate
information-processing devices . Although
all humans exhibit the range
of intelligences, individuals differ—presumably for both hereditary and
environmental reasons—in their current profile of intelligences.
Moreover, there is no
necessary correlation between any two intelligences, and they may indeed entail
quite distinct forms of perception, memory, and other psychological processes.
Although few occupations rely entirely on a single intelligence, different
roles typify the "end states" of each intelligence. For example, the
"linguistic" sensitivity to the sounds and construction of language
is exemplified by the poet, whereas the interpersonal ability to discern and
respond to the moods and motivations of other people is represented in the
therapist. Other occupations more clearly illustrate the
need for a blend of
intelligences. For instance, surgeons require both the acuity of spatial
intelligence to guide the scalpel and the dexterity of the bodily/kinesthetic
intelligence to handle it. Similarly, scientists often have to depend on their
linguistic intelligence to describe and explain the discoveries made using
their logical-mathematic intelligence, and they must employ interpersonal
intelligence in interacting with colleagues and in maintaining a productive and
smoothly functioning laboratory.
The Education and Assessment
Until this point, we have been reviewing the history of intelligence research,
admittedly from the
perspective of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences (hereafter MI
Theory). Since the
publication of Frames of Mind , they and their
colleagues have been involved
in investigating its implications. On the one hand, we seek to determine the
scientific adequacy of the theory . On the other hand, in their view, a
principal value of the multiple intelligence perspectivebe it a theory or a
"mere" frameworklies in its potential
contributions to educational
reform. In both cases, progress seems to revolve around assessment.
To demonstrate that the
intelligences are relatively independent of
one another and that
individuals have distinct profiles of intelligences, assessments of each
intelligence have to be developed. To take advantage of students’ multiple
intelligences, there must be some way to identify their strengths and
Yet MI Theory grows out of a conviction that standardized tests, with their
almost xclusive stress on linguistic and logical skills, are limited. As a
result, the further development of MI Theory requires a fresh approach to
assessment, an approach consistent with the view that there are a number of
intelligences that are developedand can best be detectedin culturally
meaningful activities . In the remainder of the paper, the scholars describe
their approach to assessment and broadly survey
their efforts to assess
individual intelligences at different age levels. In addition, they report some
preliminary findings from one of their projects and their implications for the
confirmation (or disconfirmation) of MI Theory.
If, as argued, each intelligence displays a characteristic set of
psychological processes, it is important that these processes be assessed in an
"intelligence-fair" manner. In contrast to traditional
paper-and-pencil tests, with their inherent bias toward linguistic and logical
skills, intelligence-fair measures seek to respect the different modes of
thinking and performance that
distinguish each intelligence. Although spatial problems can be approached to
some degree through linguistic media (like verbal directions or word problems),
intelligence-fair methods place a premium on the abilities to perceive and
manipulate visual-spatial information in a direct manner. For example, the
spatial intelligence of children can be assessed through a mechanical
activity in which they are
asked to take apart and reassemble a meat grinder. The activity requires them
to "puzzle out" the structure of the object and then to discern or
remember the spatial information that will allow reassembly of the pieces.
Although linguistically inclined children may produce a running report about
the actions they
are taking, little verbal
skill is necessary (or helpful) for successful performance on such a task.
Whereas most standard approaches treat intelligence in isolation from the
activities of a particular culture, MI theory takes a sharply contrasting tack.
Intelligences are always conceptualized and assessed in terms of their cultural
manifestation in specific domains of endeavor and with reference to particular
adult "end states." Thus, even at
the preschool level, language
capacity is not assessed in terms of vocabulary, definitions, or similarities,
but rather as manifest in story telling (the novelist) and reporting (the
journalist). Instead of attempting to assess spatial skills in isolation, we
observe children as they are drawing (the artist) or taking apart and putting
objects (the mechanic).
Ideally, one might wish.to assess an intelligence in a culture-independent way,
but this goal has proved to be elusive and perhaps impossible to achieve. Cross-cultural
research and studies of cognition in the course of ordinary activities have
demonstrated that performances are inevitably
dependent on a person’s
familiarity and experience with the materials and demands of the assessments.
In our own work, it rapidly became clear that meaningful assessment of an
intelligence was not possible if students
had little or no experience
with a particular subject matter or type of material. For example, our
examination of bodily-kinesthetic abilities in a movement assessment for
preschoolers was confounded by the fact that some four-year-olds had already
been to ballet classes, whereas others had never been asked to move their
expressively or in rhythm.
This recognition reinforced the notion that bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
cannot be assessed outside of a specific medium or without reference to a
history of prior experiences.
Together, these demands for assessments that are intelligence fair, are
based on culturally valued activities, and take place within a familiar context
naturally lead to an approach that blurs the distinctions between curriculum
and assessment. Drawing information from the regular curriculum ensures that
the activities are familiar;
introducing activities in a
wide range of areas makes it possible to challenge and examine each
intelligence in an appropriate manner. Tying the activities to inviting
pursuits enables students to discover and develop abilities that in turn
increase their chances of experiencing a sense of engagement and of achieving
some success in their society.
Theory into Practice
In the past five years, this approach to assessment has been explored in
projects at several different levels of schooling. At the junior and senior
high school level, Arts PROPEL, a collaborative project with the Educational
Testing Service and the Pittsburgh Public School System, seeks to assess growth
and learning in areas like music, imaginative writing, and visual arts, which
are neglected by most standard
measures .Arts PROPEL has
developed a series of modules, or "domain
projects," that serve
the goals of both curriculum and assessment. These projects feature sets of
exercises and curriculum activities organized around a concept central to a
specific artistic domainsuch as notation in music, character and dialogue in
play writing, and graphic composition in the visual arts. The drafts, sketches,
and final products generated by these and other curriculum activities are
collected in portfolios
"process-folios"), which serve as a basis for assessment of growth by
both the teacher and the student. Although the emphasis thus far has fallen on
local classroom assessments, efforts are also under way to develop criteria whereby
student accomplishment can be evaluated by external examiners.
At the elementary level, Patricia Bolanos and her colleagues have used MI
theory to design an entire public school in downtown Indianapolis . Through a
variety of special classes (e.g., computing, bodily/kinesthetic activities) and
enrichment activities (a "flow" center and apprentice-like
"pods"), all children in the Key School are given the opportunity to
discover their areas of strength and to develop the full range of
intelligences. In addition, over the course of a year, each
child executes a number of
projects based on schoolwide themes, such as "Man and His
Environment" or "Changes in Time and Space." These projects are
presented and videotaped for subsequent study and analysis. A team of
researchers from Harvard Project Zero is now engaged in developing a set of
criteria whereby these videotaped projects can be assessed. Among the
dimensions under consideration are project
effectiveness of presentation, technical quality of project, and originality,
as well as evidence for cooperative efforts and distinctive individual
A third effort, Project Spectrum, co-directed by David Feldman of Tufts
University, has developed a number of curriculum activities and assessment
options suited to the "child-centered" structure of many preschools
and kindergartens .
At present, there are
fifteen different activities, each of which taps a
particular intelligence or
set of intelligences. Throughout the year, a Spectrum classroom is equipped
with "intelligence-fair" materials. Miniature replicas and props
invite children to deploy linguistic intelligence within the context of story
telling; household objects that children can take apart and reassemble
spatial intelligence in a
mechanical task; a "discovery" area including natural objects like
rocks, bones, and shells enables children to use their logical abilities to
conduct small "experiments," comparisons, and classifications; and
group activities such as a biweekly creative movement session can be employed
to give children the
opportunity to exercise their
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence on a regular basis.
Provision of this variety of "high-affordance" materials allows
children to gain experiences that engage their several intelligences, even as
teachers have the chance unobtrusively to observe and assess children’s
strengths, interests, and proclivities.
More formal assessment of
intelligences is also possible. Researchers can administer specific games to
children and apply detailed scoring systems that have been developed for
research purposes. For instance, in the bus game, children’s ability to
organize numerical information is scored by noting the extent to which they can
keep track of the number of adults and children getting on and off a bus.
Adults and children and on and off constitute two different dimensions. Thus, a
child can receive
one of the following scores:
One dimensions recorded;
1.disorganized recording of
one dimension (either adults and children or on and off);
2.labeled, accurate recording
of one dimension;
3.disorganized recording of
4.disorganized recording of
one dimension and labeled, accurate recording of one dimension; or 5labeled,
accurate recording of two dimensions .
They have also created a related instrument, the Modified Spectrum Field
Inventory, that samples several intelligences in the course of two one-hour
sessions. Although this inventory does not draw directly from the curriculum,
it is based on the kinds of materials and activities that are common in many
preschools. In addition, related
materials from the Spectrum
curriculum can be implemented in the classroom to ensure that the children will
be familiar with the kinds of tasks and materials used in the inventory.
Preliminary Results from
Although none of these programs is in final form, and thus any evaluation must
be considered preliminary and tentative, the results so far at the pilot sites
seem promising. The value of rich and evocative materials has been amply
documented. In the classrooms in Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, and Boston, teachers
report heightened motivation on the part of the students, even as students
themselves appreciate the opportunity to reflect on their own growth and
development. Moreover, our programs with both older and younger children
confirm that a consideration of a broader range
of talents brings to the fore
individuals who previously had been considered unexceptional or even at risk
for school failure.
As for the assessment instruments under development, only those of Project
Spectrum have been field tested in classrooms. In 1987-89, they used these instruments
in two different settings to investigate the hypothesis that the intelligences
are largely independent of one another. To examine this hypothesis, we sought
to determine (a)
whether young children
exhibit distinct profiles of intellectual strengths and weaknesses, and (b)
whether or not performances on activities designed to tap different
intelligences are significantly correlated. In the 1987-88 academic year,
twenty children from a primarily white, upper-middle-income population took
part in a year-long Spectrum program. In the 1988-89 academic year, the
Field Inventory was piloted
with fifteen children in a combined kindergarten and first-grade classroom.
This classroom was in a public school in a low- to middle-income school
In the preschool study, children were assessed on ten different activities
(story telling, drawing, singing, music perception, creative movement, social
analysis, hypothesis testing, assembly, calculation and counting, and number
and notational logic) as well as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth
Edition. To compare children’s
performances across each of
the activities, standard deviations were calculated for each activity. Children
who scored one or more standard deviations above the mean were judged to have a
strength on that activity; those who scored one or more standard deviations
below the mean were considered to have a weakness on that activity. This
analysis revealed that these children did not perform at the same level across
activities and suggested that they do have distinct intellectual profiles. Of
twenty children, fifteen
demonstrated a strength on at least one activity, and twelve
children showed a weakness on
one or more activities. In contrast, only one child was identified as having no
strengths or weaknesses, and her scores ranged from -.98 to +.87 standard
deviations from the mean.
These results were reinforced by the fact that, for the most part, children’s
performances on the
activities were independent. Using Spearman rank-order correlations, only the
number activities, both requiring logical-mathematical intelligence, proved
significantly correlated with one another (r = .78, p < .01).
In the other areas, music and science, where there were two assessments, there
Conceivably, this result can be attributed to the fact that the number
activities, both of which involved calculation, shared more features than the
music activities (singing and music perception) or the science activities
(hypothesis testing and mechanical skill). Of course, the small sample size
also may have contributed to the absence of powerful correlations among
A comparison of the Spectrum and Stanford-Binet assessments revealed a
limited relationship between children’s performances on these different
correlations showed that only performances on the number activities were
significantly correlated with IQ (dinosaur game, r = .69, p <
.003; bus game, r = .51, p < .04). With its concentration on
logical-mathematic and linguistic skills, one might have expected a significant
correlation with the Spectrum language activity as well. Conceivably, there was
no significant correlation because the
children’s vocabulary and comprehension, whereas Spectrum measures how children
use language within a story-telling task.
In the second study, eight kindergartners (four boys and four girls) and seven
first graders (five girls and two boys) were assessed on the seven activities
of the Modified Spectrum Field Inventory (MSPFI). This inventory, based on the
activities developed for the year-long Spectrum assessments of preschoolers,
consists of activities in the
areas of language
(storyboard), numbers and logic (bus game), mechanics (assembly), art
(drawing), music (xylophone games), social analysis (classroom model), and
movement (creative movement). These assessments were administered in two
one-hour sessions. Each activity was videotaped and children were scored by two
Spearman rank-order correlations between the scores of the
two observers ranged from .88
(language) to .97 (art) and demonstrated the interrater reliability of these
As in the first study, strengths and weaknesses were estimated using standard
deviations. Unlike the findings from the earlier study, however, these results
revealed that some children performed quite well and others performed quite
poorly across many of the activities. It appears that the small sample size and
wide age ranges may have contributed to this result. Of the five first-grade
girls, none demonstrated a weakness in any area; all showed at least one
strength, with one girl having strengths
in six of the seven areas.
The two first-grade boys showed no strengths, and both demonstrated weaknesses
in three areas. Of the kindergartners, only two showed any strengths, with all
but one of the other children showing at least one weakness. Quite possibly,
these results reflect differences in developmental level, and perhaps gender
differences as well, that did
not obtain in the preschool sample and that may have overpowered certain
individual differences. It is also conceivable that a more extended exposure
to, and greater familiarity with, the Spectrum materials and activities, as in
the year-long Spectrum program, may have made the individual differences among
younger children more visible.
Nonetheless, an examination of children’s ranks on each of the activities
revealed a more complex picture. Although the first-grade girls dominated the
rankings, all but two children in the sample were ranked among the top five on
at least one occasion.
All but one child also scored
in the bottom five on at least one activity. Considered in this way, children
did exhibit relative strengths and weaknesses across the seven activities.
To determine whether or not performance on one activity was independent of
performance on the other activities, we standardized each of the scores with a
mean = O and standard deviation = 1 and performed Spearman rank-order
correlations. Because of the superior performance of the first-grade girls, the
performances of kindergartners and first graders were computed separately.
Consideration of the
kindergartners alone revealed only one correlation, between art and social
analysis, that approached significance (r = .66, p < .071).
For the sample of first graders, including the "high"-scoring girls,
there were a number of significant correlations: language and assembly (r
= .77, p < .04), language and numbers (r = .81,
p < .027), movement and social analysis (r =
.77, p < .04), and assembly and numbers (r = .79, p
With the exception of the performance of the first graders in the second
study, these results are reasonably consistent with the claims of Ml Theory.
For younger children, performances on the Spectrum activities were largely
independent, relative strengths and weaknesses were uncovered, and there was a
significant correlation between
preschoolers’ performances on
the Spectrum activities and the Stanford-Binet in one of the two areas where it
would be expected. Further investigations need to be conducted to establish
norms, to identify strengths and weaknesses consistently, and to examine fully
the effects of age and gendr on the Spectrum activities.
Chapter 3. Learning
environment in teaching English conversation
3.1. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
IN TEACHING ENGLISH LEARNERS TO THE SENIOR FORMS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL
Accepting Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences has several
implications for teachers in terms of classroom instruction. The theory states
that all seven intelligences are needed to productively function in society.
Teachers, therefore, should think of all intelligences as equally important.
This is in great contrast to traditional education systems which typically
place a strong emphasis on the development and use of verbal and mathematical
intelligences. Thus, the Theory of Multiple Intelligences implies that
educators should recognize and teach to a broader range of talents and skills.
Another implication is
that teachers should structure the presentation of material in a style which
engages most or all of the intelligences. For example, when teaching about the
revolutionary war, a teacher can show students battle maps, play revolutionary
war songs, organize a role play of the signing of the Declaration of
Independence, and have the students read a novel about life during that period.
This kind of presentation not only excites students about learning, but it also
teacher to reinforce the same
material in a variety of ways. By activating a wide assortment of
intelligences, teaching in this manner can facilitate a deeper understanding of
the subject material.
Everyone is born
possessing the seven intelligences. Nevertheless, all students will come into
the classroom with different sets of developed intelligences. This means that
each child will have his own unique set of intellectual strengths and
These sets determine how
easy (or difficult) it is for a student to learn information when it is
presented in a particular manner. This is commonly referred to as a learning
style. Many learning styles can be found within one classroom. Therefore, it is
impossible, as well as impractical, for a teacher to accommodate every lesson
to all of
the learning styles found
within the classroom. Nevertheless the teacher can show students how to use
their more developed intelligences to assist in the understanding of a subject
which normally employs their weaker intelligences . For example, the teacher
can suggest that an especially musically intelligent child learn about the
revolutionary war by making up a song about what happened.
As the education system has
stressed the importance of developing mathematical and linguistic
intelligences, it often bases student success only on the measured skills in
those two intelligences. Supporters of Gardner’s Theory of Multiple
Intelligences believe that this emphasis is unfair. Children whose musical
intelligences are highly
developed, for example, may
be overlooked for gifted programs or may be placed in a special education class
because they do not have the required math or language scores. Teachers must
seek to assess their students’ learning in ways which will give an accurate
overview of the their strengths and weaknesses.
As children do not learn
in the same way, they cannot be assessed in a uniform fashion. Therefore, it is
important that a teacher create an "intelligence profiles" for each
student. Knowing how each student learns will allow the teacher to properly
assess the child’s progress . This individualized evaluation practice will
allow a teacher to make more informed decisions on what to teach and how to
Traditional tests (e.g.,
multiple choice, short answer, essay…) require students to show their
knowledge in a predetermined manner. Supporters of Gardner’s theory claim that
a better approach to assessment is to allow students to explain the material in
their own ways using the different intelligences. Preferred assessment methods
include student portfolios, independent projects, student journals, and
assigning creative tasks.
3.1.1 Development of
students’ Speaking and Pronunciation Skills
Communicative and whole
language instructional approaches promote integration of speaking, listening,
reading, and writing in ways that reflect natural language use. But
opportunities for speaking and listening require structure and planning if they
are to support language development. This digest describes what speaking
what good speakers do in the
process of expressing themselves. It also presents an outline for creating an
effective speaking lesson and for assessing learners’ speaking skills.Oral
communication skills in adult ESL instruction
Outside the classroom,
listening is used twice as often as speaking, which in turn is used twice as
much as reading and writing . Inside the classroom, speaking and listening are
the most often used skills . They are
recognized as critical for
functioning in an English language context, both by teachers and by learners.
These skills are also logical instructional starting points when learners have
low literacy levels (in English or their native language) or limited formal education,
or when they come from language backgrounds with a non-Roman script or a
predominantly oral tradition. Further, with the drive to incorporate workforce
readiness skills into adult EFL instruction, practice time is being devoted to
such speaking skills as reporting, negotiating, clarifying, and problem solving
What speaking is
Speaking is an interactive
process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving
and processing information . Its
form and meaning are
dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants
themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the
purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving.
However, speech is not always
unpredictable. Language functions (or patterns) that tend to recur in certain
discourse situations (e.g., declining an invitation or requesting
time off from work), can be
identified and charted . For
example, when a salesperson
asks "May I help you?" the expected discourse sequence includes a
statement of need, response to the need, offer of appreciation, acknowledgement
of the appreciation, and a leave-taking exchange. Speaking requires that
learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as
grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary (linguistic competence), but
also that they
understand when, why, and in
what ways to produce language (sociolinguistic
competence). Finally, speech has its own skills, structures, and
conventions different from written language . A good speaker synthesizes this
array of skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speech act.
What a good speaker does
A speaker’s skills and speech
habits have an impact on the success of any exchange .
Speakers must be able to
anticipate and then produce the expected
patterns of specific
discourse situations. They must also manage discrete elements such as
turn-taking, rephrasing, providing feedback, or redirecting .
For example, a learner
involved in the exchange with the salesperson described previously must know
the usual pattern that such an interaction follows and access that knowledge as
the exchange progresses. The learner must also choose the correct vocabulary to
describe the item sought, rephrase or emphasize words to clarify the
description if the clerk does
not understand, and use appropriate facial expressions to indicate satisfaction
or dissatisfaction with the service. Other skills and knowledge that
instruction might address include the following:
producing the sounds, stress
patterns, rhythmic structures, and intonations of the language;
using grammar structures
assessing characteristics of
the target audience, including shared knowledge or shared points of reference,
status and power relations of participants, interest levels, or differences in
selecting vocabulary that is
understandable and appropriate for the audience, the topic being discussed, and
the setting in which the speech act occurs;
applying strategies to
enhance comprehensibility, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, or
checking for listener comprehension;
using gestures or body
language; and paying attention to the success of the interaction and adjusting
components of speech such as vocabulary, rate of speech, and complexity of
grammar structures to maximize listener comprehension and involvement .
Teachers should monitor
learners’ speech production to determine what skills and knowledge they already
have and what areas need development. Bailey and Savage’s New Ways in Teaching
Speaking , and Lewis’s New Ways in Teaching Adults offer
suggestions for activities that can address different skills.
General outline of a speaking
Speaking lessons can follow
the usual pattern of preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, and
extension. The teacher can use the preparation step to establish a
context for the speaking task (where, when, why, and with whom it will occur)
and to initiate awareness of the speaking skill to be targeted (asking for
clarification, stressing key words, using reduced forms of words). In presentation,
the teacher can provide learners with a preproduction model that furthers
learner comprehension and helps them become more attentive observers of
language use. Practice involves learners in reproducing the targeted
structure, usually in a controlled or highly supported manner. Evaluation
involves directing attention to the skill being examined and asking learners to
monitor and assess their own progress. Finally, extension consists of
activities that ask learners to use the strategy or skill in a different
context or authentic communicative situation, or to integrate use of the new
skill or strategy with previously acquired ones (see supplement 4).
In-class speaking tasks
Although dialogues and
conversations are the most obvious and most often used speaking activities in
language classrooms, a teacher can select activities from a variety of tasks.
Brown lists six possible task categories:
Drills in which the learner
simply repeats a phrase or structure (e.g., "Excuse me." or "Can
you help me?") for clarity and accuracy;
Drills or repetitions
focusing on specific phonological or grammatical points, such as minimal pairs
or repetition of a series of imperative sentences;
Short replies to teacher or
learner questions or comments, such as a series of answers to yes/no questions;
Dialogues conducted for the
purpose of information exchange, such as information-gathering interviews, role
plays, or debates;
Dialogues to establish or
maintain social relationships, such as personal interviews or casual
conversation role plays; and
Extended monologues such as
short speeches, oral reports, or oral summaries.
These tasks are not
sequential. Each can be used independently or they can be integrated with one
another, depending on learners’ needs. For example, if learners are not using
appropriate sentence intonations when participating in a transactional
activity that focuses on the skill of politely interrupting to make a point,
the teacher might decide to follow up with a brief imitative lesson
targeting this feature.
When presenting tasks,
teachers should tell learners about the language function to be produced in the
task and the real context(s) in which it usually occurs. They should provide
opportunities for interactive practice and build upon previous instruction as
necessary (Burns & Joyce, 1997). Teachers should also be careful not to
overload a speaking lesson with other new material such as numerous vocabulary
or grammatical structures. This can distract learners from the primary speaking
goals of the lesson.
Assessing speaking Speaking
assessments can take many forms, from oral sections of standardized tests such
as the Basic English Skills Test (BEST) or the English as a Second Language
Oral Assessment (ESLOA) to authentic assessments such as progress checklists,
analysis of taped speech samples, or anecdotal records of speech in classroom
interactions. Assessment instruments should reflect instruction and be
incorporated from the beginning stages of lesson planning . For example, if a
lesson focuses on producing and recognizing signals for turn-taking in a group
discussion, the assessment tool might be a checklist to be completed by the
teacher or learners in the course of the learners’ participation in the
discussion. Finally, criteria should be clearly defined and understandable to
both the teacher and the learners.
Improving secondary school
graduates EFL Learners’ Pronunciation Skills
Observations that limited
pronunciation skills can undermine learners’ self-confidence, restrict social
interactions, and negatively influence estimations of a speaker’s credibility
and abilities are not new . However, the current focus on communicative
approaches to English as a second language (ESL) instruction and the concern
for building teamwork and communication skills in an increasingly diverse
workplace are renewing interest in the role that pronunciation plays in adults’
overall communicative competence. As a result, pronunciation is emerging from
its often marginalized place in adult ESL instruction. This paper reviews the
current status of pronunciation instruction in adult ESL classes. It provides
an overview of the factors that influence pronunciation mastery and suggests
ways to plan and implement pronunciation instruction.
Pronunciation instruction tends to be linked to the instructional method being
used . In the grammar-translation method of the past, pronunciation was almost
irrelevant and therefore seldom taught. In the audio-lingual method, learners
spent hours in the language lab listening to and repeating sounds and sound
combinations. With the emergence of more holistic, communicative methods and
approaches to EFL instruction, pronunciation is addressed within the context of
real communication .
Research has contributed some
important data on factors that can influence the learning and teaching of
Age. The debate over the impact of age on language acquisition and
specifically pronunciation is varied. Some researchers argue that, after
puberty, lateralization (the assigning of linguistic functions to the different
brain hemispheres) is completed, and adults’ ability to distinguish and produce
native-like sounds is more limited. Others refer to the existence of sensitive
periods when various aspects of language acquisition occur, or to adults’ need
to re-adjust existing neural networks to accommodate new sounds. Most
researchers, however, agree that adults find pronunciation more difficult than
children do and that they probably will not achieve native-like pronunciation.
Yet experiences with language learning and the ability to self-monitor, which
come with age, can offset these limitations to some degree.
Amount and type of prior pronunciation instruction. Prior experiences
with pronunciation instruction may influence learners’ success with current
efforts. Learners at higher language proficiency levels may have developed
habitual, systematic pronunciation errors that must be identified and
Aptitude. Individual capacity for learning languages has been debated.
Some researchers believe all learners have the same capacity to learn a second
language because they have learned a first language. Others assert that the
ability to recognize and internalize foreign sounds may be unequally developed
in different learners.
Learner attitude and motivation. Nonlinguistic factors related to an
individual’s personality and learning goals can influence achievement in
pronunciation. Attitude toward the target language, culture, and native
speakers; degree of acculturation (including exposure to and use of the target
language); personal identity issues; and motivation for learning can all
support or impede pronunciation skills development.
Native language. Most researchers agree that the learner’s first
language influences the pronunciation of the target language and is a
significant factor in accounting for foreign accents. So-called interference or
negative transfer from the first language is likely to cause errors in
aspiration, intonation, and rhythm in the target language.
The pronunciation of any one learner might be affected by a combination of
these factors. The key is to be aware of their existence so that they may be
considered in creating realistic and effective pronunciation goals and
development plans for the learners. For example, native-like pronunciation is
not likely to be a realistic goal for older learners; a learner who is a native
speaker of a tonal language, such as Vietnamese, will need assistance with
different pronunciation features than will a native Spanish speaker; and a
twenty-three year old engineer who knows he will be more respected and possibly
promoted if his pronunciation improves is likely to be responsive to direct
Language Features Involved in
Two groups of features are
involved in pronunciation: segmentals and suprasegmentals. Segmentals
are the basic inventory of distinctive sounds and the way that they combine to
form a spoken language. In the case of North American English, this inventory
is comprised of 40 phonemes (15 vowels and 25 consonants), which are the basic
sounds that serve to distinguish words from one another. Pronunciation
instruction has often concentrated on the mastery of segmentals through
discrimination and production of target sounds via drills consisting of minimal
pairs like /bæd/-/bæt/ or /sIt/-/sît/.
Suprasegmentals transcend the level of individual sound production. They
extend across segmentals and are often produced unconsciously by native
speakers. Since suprasegmental elements provide crucial context and support
(they determine meaning) for segmental production, they are assuming a more
prominent place in pronunciation instruction .
Suprasegmentals include the
stress-a combination of
length, loudness, and pitch applied to syllables in a word (e.g., Happy,
rhythm-the regular, patterned
beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses (e.g., with weak syllables
in lower case and stressed syllables in upper case: they WANT to GO Later.);
adjustments in connected
speech-modifications of sounds within and between words in streams of speech
(e.g., "ask him," /æsk hIm/ becomes /æs kIm/);
prominence-speaker’s act of
highlighting words to emphasize meaning or intent (e.g., Give me the BLUE one.
(not the yellow one); and
intonation-the rising and
falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences (e.g., Are you REAdy?).
Pronunciation in the Curriculum
In general, programs should
start by establishing long range oral communication goals and objectives that
identify pronunciation needs as well as speech functions and the contexts in
which they might occur . These goals and objectives should be realistic, aiming
for functional intelligibility (ability to make oneself relatively easily
understood), functional communicability (ability to meet the communication
needs one faces), and enhanced self-confidence in use . They should result from
a careful analysis and description of the learners’ needs . This analysis
should then be used to support selection and sequencing of the pronunciation
information and skills for each sub-group or proficiency level within the
larger learner group .
To determine the level of emphasis to be placed on pronunciation within the
curriculum, programs need to consider certain variables specific to their
the learners (ages,
educational backgrounds, experiences with pronunciation instruction,
motivations, general English proficiency levels)
the instructional setting
(academic, workplace, English for specific purposes, literacy, conversation,
(teachers’ instructional and educational experiences, focus of curriculum,
availability of pronunciation materials, class size, availability of equipment)
(learners’ native languages, diversity or lack of diversity of native languages
within the group)
(method or approach embraced by the program)
Pronunciation in Instruction
Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and
Goodwin propose a framework that supports a communicative-cognitive approach
to teaching pronunciation. Preceded by a planning stage to identify learners’
needs, pedagogical priorities, and teachers’ readiness to teach pronunciation,
the framework for the teaching stage of the framework offers a structure for
creating effective pronunciation lessons and activities on the sound system and
other features of North American English pronunciation.
description and analysis of
the pronunciation feature to be targeted (raises learner awareness of the
activities (learners listen for and practice recognizing the targeted feature)
controlled practice and
feedback (support learner production of the feature in a controlled context)
guided practice and feedback
(offer structured communication exercises in which learners can produce and
monitor for the targeted feature)
communicative practice and
feedback (provides opportunities for the learner to focus on content but also
get feedback on where specific pronunciation instruction is needed).
A lesson on word stress,
based on this framework, might look like the following:
The teacher presents a list
of vocabulary items from the current lesson, employing both correct and
incorrect word stress. After discussing the words and eliciting (if
appropriate) learners’ opinions on which are the correct versions, the concept
of word stress is introduced and modeled.
Learners listen for and
identify stressed syllables, using sequences of nonsense syllables of varying
lengths (e.g., da-DA, da-da-DA-da).
Learners go back to the list
of vocabulary items from step one and, in unison, indicate the correct stress
patterns of each word by clapping, emphasizing the stressed syllables with
louder claps. New words can be added to the list for continued practice if
In pairs, learners take turns
reading a scripted dialogue. As one learner speaks, the other marks the stress
patterns on a printed copy. Learners provide one another with feedback on their
production and discrimination.
Learners make oral
presentations to the class on topics related to their current lesson. Included
in the assessment criteria for the activity are correct production and evidence
of self-monitoring of word stress.
In addition to careful
planning, teachers must be responsive to learners needs and explore a variety
of methods to help learners comprehend pronunciation features. Useful exercises
include the following:
Have learners touch their
throats to feel vibration or no vibration in sound production, to understand
Have learners use mirrors to
see placement of tongue and lips or shape of the mouth.
Have learners use kazoos to
provide reinforcement of intonation patterns
Have learners stretch rubber
bands to illustrate lengths of vowels.
Provide visual or auditory
associations for a sound (a buzzing bee demonstrates the pronunciation of /z/).
Ask learners to hold up
fingers to indicate numbers of syllables in words.
3.1.2 Use the World Wide Web
in teaching English to secondary school
The Internet – a network that links
computers all over the world – is now used widely by businesses, educators,
government staff, and individuals for information gatthering, entertainment,
Communication. Much has been
written about the use of Internet technologies such as e-mail, listsers,
bulletin boards, and newsgroups in ESL and foreign language classroom.
Skills developed through the
World Wide Web.
Websites cover a wide
variety of topics and interests including health, entertainment, news,, and
sports. These sites provide information with which learners can interact in
order to built basic language and employability skills.
A number of websites were
created especially for English learners and contain exercises in grammar,
vocabulary, writing, or reading.
with the help of many
websites we can develop the linguistic intelligence. It gives us opportunity to
write, listen and speak. We can speak with our partners in the UK or the USA
using computer’s Web. For example, one of my pupils likes to write letter by
e-mail. He gets more information not only about another country or city but he
learns the genuine English. He is developing the Linguistic Intelligence there.
with the help of Sound Card
we can develop the Musical Intelli-
gence. If a person
listens to the music he (or she) feels the musical
elements — pitch,
rhythm, and timbre (understanding the
of a tone).
3.1.3 Use of the Video in
teaching English to secondary school graduates
Video can be used in a
variety of instructional settings – in classrooms. In distance-learning sites
where information is broadcast from a central point to learners who interact
with a facilitatir via video or computer. It can be used in
teachers’profecional development or with students as ways of presenting
content, starting corversations, and providing illustration for concepts.
Students or senior pupils can create their own videotapes as content for the
class. It provides the development of MI.
There are such
There are a number of
good reasons to use video in the senior forms . Video combines visual and audio
stimuli, is accessible to those who have not yet learned to read and write
well, and provides context for leanning. As for TEFL, video has the added
benefit of providing real language and cultural information. Video can be
controlled (stopped, paused, repeated), and it can be presented to a group of
students, to individuals. It allows learners to see facial expressions and body
language at the same time as they hear the stress, intonation, and rhythms of
Many excellent videos
present real language and the senior pupils can hear the genuine language.
These videos include movies, television programmes, and news broadcasts; they
can provide a realistic view of American culture.
The use of authentic
videos is challenging. Often they do not provide the best means of explaining
complex concepts or practicing particular grammar or writing skills.
It takes time for the teacher
to preview and select authentic videos and then to prepare activities for
learners. As the language use and the context of authentic videos are not
controlled, teachers will need to take time these.
The teachers have to
ask themselves the following questions before choosing a video or video series:
Will the video appeal to to
my students? Will it make them want to learn?
Does the content match my
instructional goals? Is it culturally appropriate for my learners.
Clarity of message:
Is the instructional message
clear to my students?Here the teacher is vital. Preparing the learners to
understand what they are going to watch makes the difference between time
wasted and time well spent.
Is the rate of the language
or instruction too fast for my students?
What graphics are used to
explain a concept? Do they clarify it? Do they appear on screen long enough to
be understood by the learner? In some instructional videos, graphics , charts,
and even language patterns may be on the screen too briefly to be fully
Length of sequence:
Is the sequence to be shown
short enough? With ESL learners, segments that are less than five minutes are
often sufficient. A two- to three- minute segment can easiely furnish enough
material for one -hour lesson.
Independence of sequence:
Can this segment be
understood without lengthy explanations of the plot, setting, and preceding and
following it? Teachers need to decide whether it’s worth investing the time and
effort to prepare learners to understand the context of certain language and
cultural nuances, or distinctions.
Availability and quality of
What print materials
accompany the video.
Use of videos:
How will I use the video?
After the viewing, the
teacher have to discuss the films with the senior pupils.
Videos are a powerful tool in
helping English language learners improve their language skills. They provide
the learner with content, context, and language. Videos will play an increase
role in prividing ESL instruction to students in the classroom. The students
get more information about U.S. culture.
are used as strategy for TEFL.
2.According to the
structure there are seven intelligences:
The Personal Intelligence,
3.With the help of these
Intelligences we can teach English.
4.According to Howard
Gardner’s theory there are such principles:
1.Intelligence is not
singular: intelligences are multiple.
2.Every person is a unique
blend of dynamic intelligences.
3.Intelligences vary in
development, both within and among individuals.
4.All intelligences are
5.Multiple intelligences can
be identified and described.
6.Every person deserve
opportunities to recognize and develop the multiplicity of intelligences.
7.The use of one of the
intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence.
8.Personal background density
and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all
9.All intelligences provide
alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless
of age or circumstance.
10.A pure intelligence is
applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.
I have sketched the background and the major claims of a new
approach to the
conceptualization and assessment of human intelligence. Put forth in 1983, the
theory of multiple intelligences has inspired a number of
research-and-development projects that are taking place in schools ranging from
preschool through high school. Until now, our focus has fallen largely on the
development of instruments that can assess strengths and weaknesses in an
research-and-development process has proved time consuming and costly. The
measures must involve materials that are appealing and familiar to children;
there is little precedent for developing scoring systems that go beyond
linguistic and logical
criteria; and materials
appropriate for one age group, gender, or social class may not be appropriate
for others. Of course, it should be recalled that huge amounts of time and
money have already been invested in standard psychometric instruments, whose
limitations have become
increasingly evident in recent years.
Once adequate materials have been developed, it becomes possible to begin to
address some of the theoretical claims that grow out of MI Theory. They have
presented here some preliminary findings from one of our current projects.
These results give some support to the major claims of the theory, inasmuch as
children ranging in age from three to seven do exhibit profiles of relative
strength and weakness. At the same time,
even these preliminary data
indicate that the final story on Multiple Intelligences may turn out to be more
complex than we envisioned. Thus, the rather different profile of results
obtained with our two young populations indicates that, in future research, we
must pay closer attention to three factors: (a) the developmental
appropriateness of the
materials; (b) the social
class background, which may well exert an influence on a child’s ability and
willingness to engage with diverse materials; and (c) the exact deployment of
the Spectrum materials and assessment instruments in the classroom.
Some critics have suggested that MI Theory cannot be disconfirmed. The
preliminary results presented here indicate some of the ways in which its
central claims can indeed be challenged. If future assessments do not reveal
strengths and weaknesses within a population, if performances on different
activities prove to be systematically correlated, and if constructs (and
instruments) like the IQ explain the preponderance
of the variance on activities
configured to tap specific intelligences, then MI Theory will have to be
revamped. Even so, the goal of detecting distinctive human strengths, and using
them as a basis for engagement and learning, may prove to be
worthwhile,irrespective of the scientific fate of the theory.
Schools have often sought
to help students develop a sense of accomplishment and self-confidence.
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a theoretical
foundation for recognizing
the different abilities and talents of students. This theory acknowledges that
while all students may not be verbally or mathematically gifted,
children may have an
expertise in other areas, such as music, spatial relations, or interpersonal
knowledge. Approaching and assessing learning in this manner allows a
wider range of students to
successfully participate in classroom learning.
Speaking is key to
communication. By considering what good speakers do, what speaking tasks can be
used in class, and what specific needs learners report, teachers can help
learners improve their speaking and overall oral competency.
Pronunciation can be one of
the most difficult parts of a language for adult learners to master and one of
the least favorite topics for teachers to address in the classroom.
Nevertheless, with careful preparation and integration, pronunciation can play
an important role in supporting learners’ overall communicative power.
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Supplement 1. Relation of the Methodology of Foreign Language
Methods of foreign
language teaching is understood here as a body of scientifically
tested theory concerning the teaching of foreign languages in schools
and others educational institutions. It covers three main problems:
1. aims of teaching a foreign
2. content of teaching, i.e. what to
teach to attain the aims;
3. methods and techniques of
teaching, i.e. how to teach a foreign language to attain the aims
in the most effective way.
Methods of foreign
language teaching is closely related to other sciences such as
pedagogies, psychology, physiology, linguistics and some others.
Pedagogics is the science
concerned with the teaching and education of the younger generation.
Since Methods also deals with the problems of teaching and education,
it is most closely related to pedagogics. To study foreign language
teaching one must know pedagogics. One branch of pedagogics is called
didactics. Didactics studies general ways of teaching in schools.
Methods, as compared to didactics, studies the specific ways of
teaching a definite subject. Thus, it may be considered special
didactics. In the foreign language teaching, as well as in the
teaching of mathematics, history and other subjects taught in schools,
general principles of didactics are applied and, in their turn,
influence and enrich didactics. For example, the so-called “principle of
visualization" was first introduced in teaching foreign languages. Now
it has become one of the fundamental principles of didactics and is
used in teaching all school subjects without exception. Programmed
instruction was first applied to teaching mathematics. Now through
didactics it is used in teaching many subjects, including foreign languages.
Teaching a foreign
language means first and foremost the formation and development of
pupils’ habits and skills in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. We
cannot expect to develop such habits and skills of our pupils effectively if
we do not know and take into account the p s y c h o l o g y of habits and
skills, the ways of forming them, the influence of formerly acquired
habits ‘on the formation of new ones, and many other necessary factors
that psychology can supply us with. At present we have much material
in the field of psychology which can be applied to teaching a foreign
language. For example, N. I. Zhinkin, in his investigation of the mechanisms
of speech came to the conclusion that words and rules of combining them
are most probably dormant in the kinetic center of the brain. When the
ear receives a signal it reaches the brain, its hearing center and
then passes to the kinetic center. Thus, if a teacher wants his pupils to
speak English he must use all the opportunities he has to make them hear
and speak it. Furthermore, to master a second language is to acquire another
code, another way of receiving and transmitting information. To create
this new code in the most effective way one must take into consideration
certain psychological factors.
Effective learning of
a foreign language depends to a great extent on the pupils’ memory.
That is why a teacher must know how he can help his pupils to successfully
memorize and retain in memory the language material they learn. Here
again psychological investigations are significant. In learning a
subject both voluntary and involuntary memory is of great importance.
In his investigation of involuntary memory P. K. Zinchenko came to the
conclusion that this memory is retentive. Consequently, in teaching a
foreign language we should create favourable conditions for involuntary
memorizing. P. K. Zinchenko showed that involuntary memorizing is
possible only when
pupils attention is concentrated
not on fixing the material in their memory through numerous
repetitions, but on solving some mental problems which deal with
this material. To prove this the following experiment was carried out.
Students of group A were given a list of words to memorize
(voluntary memorizing). Students of group B did not receive a list of words
to memorize. Instead, they got an English text and some assignments
which made them work with these words, use them in answering various
questions. During the next lesson a vocabulary test was given to the
students of both groups. The results were approximately the same. A
test given a fortnight later proved, however, that the students of
group B retained the words in their memory much better than
the students of group A. This shows that involuntary memorizing may
be more retentive under certain circumstances. Experiments by prominent
scientists show that psychology helps Methods to determine the role
of the mother tongue in different stages of teaching; the amount of material
for pupils to assimilate at every stage of instruction; the sequence and ways
in which various habits and skills should be developed; the methods and
techniques which are more suitable for presenting the material and
for ensuring its retention by the pupils, and so on.
Methods of foreign language
teaching has a definite relation to p h y s i o 1 o g y of the higher
nervous system. Pavlov’s theories of "conditioned reflexes", of
the "second signaling system" and of "dynamic stereotype"
are the examples. Each of these interrelated theories bears a direct relation
to the teaching of a foreign language.
According to Pavlov
habits are conditioned reflexes, and a conditioned reflex is an action
performed automatically in response to a definite stimulus as a
result of previ- ous frequent repetitions of the same action. If we,
thoroughly study the theory of conditioned reflexes we shall see that
it explains and confirms the necessity for frequent repetitions and revision
of material pupils study as one of the means of inculcating habits. Pavlov
showed that man’s higher nervous activities — speaking and thinking —
are the functions of a special system of organic structures within
the nervous system. This system is developed only in man. It enables
the brain to respond to inner stimuli as it responds to outer stimuli
or signals perceived through the sense organs. Pavlov named this the
second signaling system.
Consequently one of the
forms of human behaviour is language behaviour, i. e., speech response to
different communication situations. Therefore in teaching a foreign
language we must bear in mind that pupils should acquire the language
they study as a behaviour, as something that helps people to
communicate with each other in various real situations of intercourse.
Hence a foreign language should be taught through such situations.
theory of "dynamic stereotype" also furnishes the physiological
base for many important principles of language teaching, e. g., for the
topical vocabulary arrangement.
of foreign language teaching is most closely related to linguistics,
since linguistics deals with the problems which are of paramount
importance to Methods, with language and thinking, grammar and vocabulary,
the relationship between grammar and vocabulary, and many others. Methods
successfully uses, for example, the results of linguistic investigation in
the selection and arrangement of language material for teaching. It is
known that structural linguistics has had a great impact on language
teaching. Teaching materials have ‘been prepared by linguists and
methodologists of the structural school. Many prominent linguists have
not only developed the theory of linguistics, but tried to apply it
to language teaching. The following quotation may serve as a proof of
has occurred to the linguist as well a s to the psychologist that
the foreign language classroom should be an excellent laboratory in
which to test new theories of language acquisition."
of foreign language teaching like any other science, has definite
ways of investigating the problems which may arise. They are:
1. a critical study of
the ways foreign languages were taught in our country and abroad;
2. a thorough study
and summing up of the experience of the best foreign language teachers in
different types of schools;
3. experimenting with the
aim of confirming or refuting the working hypotheses that may arise
during investigation. Experimenting becomes more and more popular with
methodologists. In experimenting methodologists have to deal with different
data, that is why in arranging research work they use mathematics,
statistics, and probability theory to interpret experimental results.
In recent years there
has been a great increase of interest in Methods since foreign
language "teaching has many attractions as an area for research.
A great deal of useful research work has been carried out. New ideas
and new data produced as the result of research are usually developed
into new teaching materials and teaching techniques.
It should be said that
we need research activities of the following types: descriptive research
which deals with "what to teach"; experimental and instrumental
research dealing with "how to teach". More research is now
needed which compares different combination of devices, various teaching
Supplement 2. Methods of Foreign Language
At the term of the
17th century Volfgang Ratichius (1571-1635) complained about
contemporary methods of LT stressed rote learning and grammar at the
expense of reading and spearing. He initiated the principle of
cognitive leaning of Latin translation as a basic means of
semantization and emphasized on repetition as a favored technique. But
it remained for his successor, the famous Czech educator Ian Comenius
(1592-1670) to devise new methods of LT based on new principles.
Instead of rules, I. Comenius used imitation, repetition and plently of
practice in both reading and speaking.
In 1631 Ian Comenius
published his book “Ianua linguarum reserata” – “The Gates of
Languages Unlocked” in which he described new methods of language teaching
based on his principles. The book included a limited vocabulary of a
few thousand word; each used in a sentence which gave some
indication of meaning.
“Orbis Pictus” (1658)
is another book by Ian Comenius in which a Latin text is
accompanied by illustrations and translations into the mother tongue.
Great attention is paid to direct associations between the word in
a FL and an object it denotes. In this way the role of the mother
tongue was limited. Ian Comenius recommended the following principles:
from easy to
from simple to
from know to
remained the chief concern of Ian Comenius. His “Linguarum methodus
novissima” (Contemporary/modern methods revised) contains one of the
first attempts to teach grammar inductively. “Didactica Magna” was a
more ambitious work that went beyong language teaching and laid the
foundations for modern pedagogy.
This method has been
with us through the centuries and is still with us. It has had
different names; at one time it was called Classical Method since it
was used in the teaching of the classical language, Latin and Greek.
The method involves many written exercises, much translation and
lengthy vocabulary lists. The teacher describes in detail the grammar
of the language, focusing on the form and infection of words. This
method aims at providing an understanding of the grammar of the
language in question expressed in traditional terms, and at training
the students to read and write the target language, rather than mastering
the oral and aural skills. To do this the students need to learn
the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language. It was
hoped that, by doing this students would become more familiar with
the grammar of the native language and that this familiarity would
help them speak and write their native language better. It was also
thought that foreign language learning would help students grow
intellectually; it was recognized that students would probably never
use the target language, but the mental exercise of learning it
would be beneficial anyway.
Students study grammar
deductively: that is, they are given rules and examples, they are told
to memorise then, and then are asked to apply rules to other
examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as the plural of
nouns, degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs, verb
conjugations. They memories native language equivalents for foreign
language vocabulary lists.
The techniques of
G-TM imply bilingual vocabulary lists, written exercises, elaborate
grammatical explanations, translation, and total involvement in reading
The objectives of
G-TM are non-utilitarian – confined to understanding of literature
which gives keys to great classical culture.
The advantages of
this method lie in its limited objectives: understanding of written
language and some basic writing and translation. The method is not
demanding for the teacher (simple preparation from a textbook and
little physical endeavour).
The disadvantages of
this method include a total neglect of spoken language, communication
skills, use of esoteric vocabulary, and monotonous procedure in class.
Grammar-Translation Method is simply a combination of the activities
of grammar and translation. The teacher begins with rules isolated
vocabulary items, paradigms and translation. Pronunciation either is not
taught or is limited to a few introductory notes. Grammar rules are
memorized as units, which sometimes include illustrative sentences.
Harold Palmer the
great English authority and teacher, experimented extensively with the
question-answer method. He considered question-answer work to be “the
most effective of all language learning exercise ever devised”.
however, that if this technique was to be carried out successfully,
all questions asked by the teacher must be carefully planned and
thought out beforehand. Questions should never be haphazard, either in
form or content. Specifically, H. Palmer thought that any question
asked by the teacher should be of a nature that admits the
a) an obvious answer, not an answer
that requires one or more complicated acts of judgement on the part
of the student;
b) an easy answer, not one that
requires the use of word, facts, or constructions unknown to the
c) a relevant answer, direct answer
involving only a moderate change through the process of conversion,
substitution, or completion of the material contained in the teacher’s
In H. Palmer’s view,
there are three stages of learning:
Fixing it in
the memory by repetition.
knowledge by real practice.
H. Palmer was the
author of some 50 theoretical works, textbooks and manuals. Of great
interest are H. Palmer’s “100 Substitution Tables”, in which sentence
patterns are arranged in tables for pupils to make up their
sentences, following the pattern. His main findings can be conveniently
summarized as the following objectives:
1. Phonetic, semantic and syntactic
2. Oral speech by way of speaking
3. Accumulation of passive material
with subsequent active reproduction.
4. Techniques used for translation
include visuality, interpretation and verbal context.
5. Speech patterns to be learn by
6. Rational selection of vocabulary
based on frequency counts and utility.
7. Topical selection: minimum
vocabulary list of 3000 words.
H. Palmer paid great
attention to a system of exercises, which in his should include:
1. receptive –question and short
answers to them;
2. receptive-imitative –words and
word-combinations repeated after the teacher;
3. conversational –questions, answers,
commands and completion of sentences.
Thus H. Palmer method
is based on rationalization of teaching/learning process and
systematic selection of material. Teaching speaking features prominelity
in H. Palmer’s method, hence its name “oral method”.
The Direct Method
appeared as a reaction to the GTM and the failure to procedure
learns who could use the foreign language they had been studying.
The Direct Method was
based on the belief that students could learn a language through
listening to it and that they learn to speak by speaking it –
associating speech with appropriate action, like the way the children
learn native tongue. The Direct Method received its name from the
fact that meaning is to be related to the target language directly,
without going through the process of translating into the student’s
The various “oral”
and “natural” methods which developed at the turn of the century
may be grouped under DM. The students learn new words and phrases
from objects. Actions and mime. When the meaning of words could not
be made clear, the teacher would resort to semantization but never
to native language translations. From the beginning, students are
accustomed to hearing complete meaningful sentences in the target
language. Grammar is taught at a later stage inductively, numerous
examples of a certain principle are presented and the rule is then
inferred from these examples. An explicit grammar rule may never be
Students learn to
think in the target language as soon as possible. Vocabulary is
acquired more naturally if students use in full sentences, rather
than memorizing long lists of words. Vocabulary is emphasized over
grammar. Although work on all four skills occurs from the start, oral
communication is seen as basic. Thus the reading and writing exercises
are based upon what the students have orally practiced first.
Pronunciation also receives due attention from the beginning of the
course. Desides studying every speech the learns also do history,
geography and culture of the country or countries where the
The teacher who
employs DM asks the students to self-correct their answers by
asking them to make a choice between what they said and alternate
answer he supplies. There are, of course, other ways of getting
students to self-correct. For example, a teacher might simply repeat
what a student has just said using a questioning voice to signal
to the student that something was wrong with it. Another possibility
is for teacher to repeat what the student said, stopping just before
the error. The student then knows that the next word was wrong.
There are also other options of remedial work.
The main principles of
DM can be summarized under the following headings:
1. FL used throughout.
2. Audio-visual approach.
3. Speech before reading.
4. No translation-meaning conveyed
1. Fluency in speech.
2. Capacity to think in target
3. Meaningful everyday language.
4. Grammar to be include from
5. Explanations in foreign language.
1. Lively procedure in classroom.
2. Correct pronunciation.
3. Absence of rule-giving.
4. Learning through doing
1. Plunges learners too soon into
2. Foreign-Language learner not like
infant native-language learner.
3. Dangers of including wrong rule.
4. Tremendous energy needed be
Method like the Direct Method we have just examined, has a goal
very different from that of the Grammar-Translation Method. The
Audio-Lingual Method was developed in the United States during the
Second World War. At that time there was a need for people to
learn foreign languages rapidly for military purposes. As we have
seen G-TM did not prepare people to use the target language. While
the communication in the target language was the goal of DM, there
were at the time exciting new ideas about language and learning
emanating from the disciplines of descriptive linguistics and
We can trace the Audio-Lingual
Method rather directly to the “scientific” linguistics of Leonard
Bloomfield and his followers. Both behaviouristic psychology and
structural linguistics constituted a reaction against a vague and
unscientific approach to the questions of human behaviour. Including
the acquisition of knowledge.
Every language, as it
is viewed here, has its own unique system. This system is comprised
of several different levels: phonological, lexical, and syntactical. Each
level has its own distinctive features.
Everyday speech is
emphasized in the Audio-Lingual Method. The level of complexity of
the speech is graded so that beginning students are presented with
only simple forms.
The structures of the
language are emphasised over all other areas. The syllabus is
typically a structural one, with the structure for any particular
unit include in the new dialogue. Vocabulary is also contextualized
within the dialogue. It is however, limited since the emphasis is
placed on the acquisition of the patterns of the language.
provision of this method include five maxims to guide teachers in
applying the result of linguistic research to the preparation of
teaching materials and to classroom techniques:
8. Language is speech, not writing.
correct pronunciation from the beginning;
speaking before reading and writing;
c) Realistic, situation utterances
first; reading/writing as reinforcers; time lag will depend on sitution.
9. Language is a set of habits.
Based on the
assumption that language learning is a habit formation process,
pattern drilling and dialogue memorization are extensively used;
the grammar-translation method;
the teacher not the learner;
doing, through active practice
rules induced later.
11. A language is what its native speakers say,
not what someone thinks they ought to say:
colloquial wealth of language;
language at much later stage;
grammar mistrusted: functional styles (occupational, emotive, informative)
studied as well as language of attitude.
12. Languages are different:
of transformational grammar mistrusted;
studies of language encouraged;
accepted when necessary or possible;
later skill with its own techniques
1. Situational dialogues.
2. Everyday language.
3. Emphasis on speaking – aural –
oral active participation.
5. Pattern-drilling-choral/individual –
Role playing/Dialogue building.
6. Reading and writing to reinforce.
7. Awareness of graphic interference.
8. Rules to be induced from
A-LM enables the
students to use the target language communicatively. In order to do
this the students are believed to overlearn the target language. To
learn to use it automatically without stopping to think. The students
achieve this by forming new habits in the target language and
overcoming the old habits of their native language.
The teacher is like
an orchestral leader, directing and controlling the language behaviour
of the students. He is also responsible for providing his students
with a good model of imitation. The students are imitators of the
teacher’s model or the tapes he supplies of model speakers. They
follow the teacher’s directions and respond as accurately and as
rapidly as they can.
New vocabulary and
structures are presented through dialogues and texts. These are learnt
through imitation and repetition, transposition are based upon the
patterns in the dialogue or texts. Students successful responses are
positively reinforced. Grammar is induced from the example given;
explict grammar rules are not provided. Cultural information is
contextualized in the dialogues and texts or presented by the
teacher. Students’ reading and writing work is based upon the oral
work they did earlier.
Thus the main
provisions of this method can be conveniently summarized in the
four skills with initial emphasis on listening and speaking.
function: understanding culture through language.
1. Useful language learnt from
2. Good pronunciation achieved
through sound discrimination and auditory practice.
3. Materials especially devised on
contrastive analysis rather than total structures –presentation based
on frequency counts and utility.
4. Reading and writing not
neglected but postponed to serve as reinforcement.
5. Highly motivating: learner senses
achievement from beginning through practical use and participation.
6. A-LM requires and encourages use
of simple and mechanical aids.
1. Lack of spontaneity if learning
2. Reliance on inductive process
3. Time lag between oral and
written work: dependence on ear alone can lead to insecurity –
emotional dislike of aural-oral work and invention of graphic
4. A-LM for all students? Average
student does best, intelligent student border?
5. Makes considerable demand on the
6. Is order of presentation natural?
7. Does A-LM produce language
illiterates –fluent speakers who cannot read or write?
1. Avoid dull drills –contextualize:
2. Practice should be meaningful
and point of drill should be explained to the learner and
3. Time lag must vary according to
situation – in some cases oral/written work side be side.
4. Intelligent students should be
told that practice makes perfect – hence importance of fluency, clarity
5. Order of presentation probably
logical though analogy with child learner not relevant. Adult is
trained to think and use books/dictionaries, but without first
learning how to pronounce words he will not learn how to read well.
6. Experience showed that A-LM
trainer learner did better is all skills than traditional counterpart
except in writing.
Though the emphases
at the beginning are strongly on listening and speaking, no
devaluation of literature is implied. It appears that mastery of
sound system of a language is essential for efficient reading and
for appreciation of literature. One of the qualities that makes a
work of literature great is the choice of words and phrases, and
one of the factors that governs this choice is how they sound. “To
read a work of literature without any idea of what it sounded like
to the writer is to be as handicapped as the tone-deaf listening
to music or the colour-blind looking at a painting”.
Method or Suggestive Method
Few methods have been
met with claims ranging from sensational to skeptical: mysterious and
costly, a highly questionable new gimmick (one critic has unkindly
called it “a package of pseudo-scientific gobbledygook”) and far
remote from language teaching styles as language sleep learning,
medative relaxation, electrical and sound impulses (E. Davydova).
Suggestopedia as G.
Lozanov called his pedagogical application of :The Science of
Suggestology” aims at neutralizing learning inibitions and
de-suggesting false limitations that cultural norms impose on learning.
The suggestive method or
Suggestopedia is a modification of direct method. The originator
of this method believes, as does Silent Way’s Caleb Gattegno, that language
learning can occur at a much faster rate than what ordinarily transpires. In G.
Losanov’s view the reason for the pupils inefficiency is that they set up
psychological barriers that block the way to learning. They fear that they will
be unable to perform, that they will be limited in the ability to learn, and
finally fail. One result is that the learners’ full mental powers are not
engaged. According to G. Losanov and his proponents, only five per cent of the
learners’ mental capacity is used. In order to make better use of the mental
reserves the limitations, which they think we have, need to be
"desuggested". Suggestopedia, the application of the study of
suggestion to pedagogy, has been developed to help students eliminate the
feeling that they cannot be successful and, thereby, to help them overcome the
barriers to learning.
principles of G. Losanov’s method assume the form of five maxims:
1. Get the learners to
utter the same structure repeatedly.
2. Get them to do so
3. Do this through good
grading of structures by arranging them in order of difficulty and by
introducing them one at a time if possible.
4. The behaviourist
approach is repetition and drilling to the point where the learner
automatically makes the correct response.
5. Lessons must be
designed so as to prevent the learners from making mistakes.
described all learning (including language acquisition) as a matter of
conditioning — as the formation of habits through responses to outside stimuli.
Thus one learns a language through mimicry, memorisation and analogy .
Communication takes place
on "two planes": on linguistic and psychological one. On the
linguistic plane the message is encoded; and on the psychological are factors
which influence the linguistic message. On the conscious plane, the learner
attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the music suggests that
learning is easy and pleasant; when there is a unity between conscious and
subconscious, learning is enhanced .
The class, where this
method is used, is different from other classrooms — the students are seated
in cushioned armchairs that are arranged in a semicircle facing the front of
the room. The teacher is lively, dynamic, confidant, yet sensitive, and speaks
only the target language, which suggests that the learners do the same.
In the firsts three-hour meeting all learners choose a new name and
nationality, after which they are given a fictional autobiography. By means of
song, imitation, and play, the learners introduce themselves to each other and
assume their new roles. Then over the next two days, the teacher twice presents
a long script, each time with a different aim and a different learning set-up;
these script performances called "concert sessions", are accompanied
by music. In the first of these, the "active concert session", the
music is emotional, and the tone of the artistic presentation reflects the
character of the music. The learners have the script in two languages arranged
in short phrases on opposite sides of the page. After the "concert
session" come various kinds of elaboration activities, including group and
choral reading of parts of the scripts, singing and playing games as a group
and individually. The second day the script is performed again, this time in a
"pseudopassive concert session” where a state of wakeful relaxation is
artfully stimulated. This reading is accompanied by music of a different tone
and mood, generally barouque style. Following that, the learners (in their new
identities) are aided again in elaborating the script in various ways. This may
include narrating a story or event, or creating an original story, using the
language in the script .
the selection of vocabulary becomes more elaborate. It may
include situations from literary works, rustic scenes, and facts from everyday
life. Using pantomime to help the students understand, the teacher acts out
various occupations, such as pilot, singer, carpenter and artist. The students
choose what they want to be.
teacher reads a dialogue partly in English and partly through pantomime, and
outlines the dialogue’s story. He also calls his students attention to some of
the comments regarding vocabulary and grammar structures.
the teacher asks the students to read the dialogue in a sad way, in an angry
way and finally in an amorous way. This is followed by asking questions about
the dialogues. Sometimes he asks the students to repeat an English line after
him; still other times he addresses a question from the dialogue to an
So, the principles and
techniques of Suggestopedia can be conveniently summarized under the
1. classroom set-up;
2. positive suggestion;
4. choosing a new indentity;
7. primary activation (the students
playfully re-read the dialogue);
8. secondary activation (the
students engage in various activities designed to help them learn
the new material and use it spontaneously).
recommended for this phase include singing, dancing, dramatisations,
games. The important thing is that the activities are varied and
don’t allow the students to focus on the form of the linguistic
message, just the communicative intent.
instruction is designed so as to tap more successfully the learning
powers of the mind and eliminate psychological barriers that block
learning and inhibit production. The lessons are pleasant, interesting,
and nonthreatening; the teacher gives lots of encouragement, and
come to the realisation that each learner possesses distinct:
cognitive and personality traits, it
follows that one teaching methodology will not be the most appropriate for all
students. The recent tendency has therefore been towards eclecticism, selecting
materials and techniques from various
This obviously puts a
much larger responsibility on the teacher, for now he should be familiar with
a much wider range of materials, exercises and activities than before. It is no
longer a matter of picking up the textbook and following it page by
Depending on the content
and difficulty of the subject matter, the learner would apply one or more of
these different types of learning in a given situation. Evidently, if the
teacher is to be aware of this multiple individual cognitive and personality
factors and be able diagnose and utilise them to the fullest, he must have
more than a passing knowledge of the recent investigation in all related
sciences. But the problem lies not only in lies amount of information to be
mastered but in the organization and application of that knowledge to a
An eclecticist tries to
absorb the best techniques of all well-known language-teaching methods into his
classroom procedures and seeks the balaced development of all four skills at
all stages while retaining emphasis on an
oral presentation first. He adopts his methods to the changing
objectives of the day and to the types of students who pass through his
classroom. The eclectic teacher is imaginative, energetic, resourceful, and
willing to experiment. His lessons are varied and interesting.
1. Some grammatical
explanations in native language.
2. Translation as
short-cut to conveying meaning.
3. Balanced development
of four skills at all stages with emphasis an aural-oral
4. Adjustments according
to needs of class and personalities of teachers.
Communicative Method of FLT
A comparative study of
methods and approaches in TEFL/TESL has shown that the past methodologies seem
to have pursued too narrow objectives. A flexible uniform language-teaching
strategy should be based on a careful selection of facets of various methods
and their integration into a cohesive, coherent working procedure which will
suit the realities of the particular teaching situation. It is assumed that the
goal of language leaching is the learner’s ability to communicate in target language.
It is assumed that the content of a language course will include linguistic
structures, semantic notions, and social functions. Students regularly work in
groups or pairs to transfer meaning in situations where one student has
information that the others lack. Students often engage in role-play or
dramatizations to adjust their use of the target language to different social
contexts. Classroom materials and activities are often authentic to reflect
real-life situations and demands. Skills are integrated from the beginning: a
given activity might involve reading, speaking, listening and perhaps also
writing. The teacher’s role is primarily to facilitate communication and only
secondarily to correct errors. The teacher should be able to use the target language
fluently and appropriately. Written activities should be used sparingly with
younger children. Children of six or seven years old are often not yet
proficient in mechanics of writing in their own language.
literature of the last two decades the word "communicative" is the
most frequently used one. Communicative method (sometimes referred to as
approach) grew out of the works of anthropological linguists who view language
first and foremost as the system of communication .This method stresses the
need to teach communicative competence as opposed to the linguistic competence:
thus functions are emphasized over form. The long and complex history of
communicative competence and the importance of the relation between ideas about
the nature of language and their social, intellectual and cultural contexts
have become a major concern not only for methodologists, linguists, but also
for psychologists and social theorists.
enables learners to realize that every speech act takes place in a specific
social situation. Psychological factors (the learners’ age, sex, complement of
the group, pupil’s personality, their roles, etc.) as well as linguistic factors
(a topic of discussion, type of discourse; a colloquial, informal or formal
variety of English (also known as register) play a crucial role here. In other
words appropriateness and accessibility of speech in the particular social
situation are as equally important as accuracy of pronunciation and grammar.
is the ability of learners to use the language appropriately for the given
socio-cultural context. To do this the learners should be able to manage the
process of negotiating meaning with the teacher and among themselves.
is not a compilation of items, but a set of strategies or creative procedures
for realizing the value of linguistic elements in contextual use, an ability to
make sense as a participant of spoken or written discourse by shared knowledge
of code resources and rules of language use .
The content of
communicative instruction is based on the concept that the process of
instruction and the model of communication.
All this does not
necessarily mean that the process of instruction is the exact replica of the
process of communication. When we communicate, we use the language to
accomplish some function, such as persuading, arguing, agreeing, disagreeing or
promising. Moreover, we carry out these functions within an appropriate social
context. A speaker will choose a peculiar way to express his argument according
to his intent, his level of emotion, and what his relationships with the
collocutor are. For example, he may be more direct in arguing with
his friend than with his senior.
communication is a process, it is insufficient for learners to simply have
knowledge of target language forms, meanings, and functions. Students must be
able to apply this knowledge in negotiating meaning. It is through the
interaction between speaker and listener (or reader and writer) that meaning
becomes clear, the listener gives the speaker feedback as to whether or not he
understood what the speaker has said. In this way the speaker can revise what
he has said and try to communicate Ins intended meaning again, if necessary.
In communication, the
speaker has a choice of what he will say and how he will say. If the exercise
is tightly controlled so that the pupils can only say something in one way, the
speaker has no choice and the exchange, therefore, is not communicative. In a
chain drill, for example, a student must answer his collocutor’s question. In
the same way he replied lo someone else’s question. Therefore, the student has
no choice of form and content and quasi-communication occurs.
communication is purposeful. The speaker can thus evaluate whether his intent,
based upon the information he receives from the listener, has been achieved. If
the listener does not have an opportunity to provide the speaker with such
feedback, then the exchange is not really communicative.
Communication has parameters which
are difficult to prognose, there are no certain guidelines to govern this
interactive process. To model communication means to establish basic
constraints, its underlying principles which include:
1. individual approach;
2. functional approach (stresses the
context rather than the very structure of language);
3. communication-oriented activity;
4. personal involvement;
5. situational approach;
teacher’s role is to have his students to become communicatively competent. To
do this students need knowledge of the linguistic forms, meanings, and
functions. They need to be reminded that the said categories are in dialectical
unity and many different forms can be used to perform a function, as well as a
single form can often serve a variety of functions. They must be able to choose
from these forms the most appropriate one, given the socio-cultural context and
the roles of the interlocutors.
role is to facilitate the teaching/learning process, to establish situations
which will promote communication. During the activities he acts as an advisor,
answering his students questions and monitoring their performance. At other
times he might be a "co-communicator" — engaging in the communicative
activity along with the Students .
teacher’s role is less dominant than in a teacher-centered method, (DM, A-LM,
CC-LT, etc.) students are seen as more responsible managers of their own
most obvious characteristics of the communicative method is that almost
everything that is done is done with a communicative purpose. Students use the
language a great deal through communicative activities such as games,
role-plays, and problem-solving tasks.
Activities are truly communicative
according to Johnson K. and Marrow K., they cover three features; information
gap, choice, and feedback. Another characteristic feature of CM is the use of
authentic materials. It is considered desirable to give students an opportunity
strategies for understanding language
as it is actually used by native speakers.
Finally, such activities
are carried out by students in small groups. Small numbers of students
interacting are favored in order to maximize the time allotted to each student
for learning to negotiate meaning.
The teacher is the
initiator of the activities, but he does not always interact with the students.
Sometimes he is a co-communicator, but oftener he establishes real-life
situations that prompt communication between and among the students. The
students interact a great deal with one another. They do this in various
configurations: pairs, triads, small groups, and the whole class.
One of the basic
assumptions of CM is that students will be more motivated to study a FL since
they will feel to do something useful with the language they study.
teachers give students an opportunity to express their individuality by having
them share their ideas and opinions on a regular basis. This helps students
"to integrate the foreign language with their own personality and thus to
feel more emotionally secure with it" .
mistakes should not be constantly corrected but regarded with greater
tolerance, as a completely normal phenomenon in the development of
communicative skills. In short, communicative method leaves the learner scope
to contribute his own personality to the learning process. It also provides the
teacher with scope to step out of his didactic role in order to be a
"human among humans" .
students’ security is enhanced by many opportunities for cooperative
interaction with their fellow students and the teacher.
is the everyday lifestyle of people who are native speakers of the language.
There are certain aspects of it that are especially important to communication
-the use of non-verbal behaviour, which receives greater attention in CM.
Students work on all four
skills from the beginning. The target language should be used not only during
communicative activities, but also, for example, in explaining the activities
to the students or in assigning homework. The students learn from these
classroom management exchanges, and realise that the target language is a
means and vehicle of communication, not just a subject to be studied.
The teacher supervises
his students’ performance at every stage of their work. He evaluates not only
their accuracy, but their fluency and prosody as well. The student who has the
most control of the structures and vocabulary is not always the best
communicator. For more formal evaluation, a teacher is recommended to use a
communicative test. This is an integrative test which has a real communicative
The teacher also
assumes an integrated approach to students’ errors. Errors of form
are tolerated and are seen as a natural outcome of the development
of communication skills. Some students can have limited linguistic
knowledge and still be successful communicators.
To substantiatiate and
implement CM into practice means to go beyond its general
description. It is important to take into account all methodological
functions of these underlying principles, their content, and see what
results could be anticipated in all four skills of activity.
competence entails not solely grammatical accuracy but knowledge of
socio-cultural rules of appropriateness, discourse norms – the ability
to sustain coherent discourse with another speaker, and strategies for
ensuring remedial work for potential breakdown in communications.
Emphasis is placed on
developing motivation to learn through establishing meaningful,
purposeful, coherent discourses in the target language. Individuality is
encouraged, as well as cooperation with peers. Who contribute to a
sense of achievement and emotional security with the target
The Seven Intelligences
Intelligence End-States Core Components
Logical- Scientist Sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical or
mathematical Mathematician numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of
Linguistic Poet Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings Journalist of
words; sensitivity to different functions of language.
Musical Composer Abilities to produce and appreciate rhythm,
Violinist pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of
Spatial Navigator Capacities to perceive the visual-spatial world
Sculptor accurately and to perform transformations on
one’s initial perceptions.
Bodily- Dancer Abilities to control one’s body movements and
kinesthetic Athlete to handle objects skillfully.
Interpersonal Therapist Capacities to discern and respond appropriately
Salesman to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and
desires of other people.
Intrapersonal Person with Access to one’s own feelings and the ability to
detailed, discriminate among them and draw upon them
accurate self- to guide behavior; knowledge of one’s own
knowledge strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences.
Example of a
1. Preparation. Show the learners a picture of
2. Presentation. Present several video clips of
3. Practice. Give learners specific information
4. Evaluation. Give pairs a teacher-prepared dialogue
5. Extension. Have learners go individually or in