Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

 

Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new
English syllabus for secondary school

1.1     Methodology as a science

1.1.1 Present-day issues of foreign
language teaching at secondary school

1.1.2 Current concepts  in secondary
school graduates EFL

 
Chapter 2. Theory
of multiple intelligences

2.1  Gardner’s theory

2.1.1  
Linguistic Intelligence

2.1.2  
Logical/Mathematical Intelligene

2.1.3  
Intrapersonal Intelligence

2.1.4   Interpersonal  Intelligence

            2.1.5  Musical 
Intelligence

2.1.6  Spatial 
Intelligence

    2.1.7  Bodily-Kinesthetic  Intelligence

    2.1.8  Naturalistic  Intelligence

     2.2.  Psychological analysis of
Gardner’s Theory

Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English
conversation

3.1  
Multiple
intelligences in teaching English learners to the senior  

            forms of secondary
school              

3.1.1   Development of students’ speaking and
pronunciation skills

3.1.2   Use of the World Wide Web in teaching
English to secondary school graduates

3.1.3   Use of the VIDEO in teaching English
to secondary school graduates

Conclusions

Bibliography

Supplement

       Introduction

        The theme of the
present university degree thesis is “ Multiple

Intelligences as Strategy for
teaching EFL to High School Graduates “.

       

The topicalityof the research
is stipulated by rapid changes in education

and  intercultural
communication etc., caused by the development of

computer technologies.

        The aim of the
university degree thesis is include the Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for
TEFL to High school students .

         Methods of the
research:

-inductive,

-deductive,

-experience of noted
scholars,

-research of literature.

The theoretical value of the
paper consists in using the results of the research in the EFL teaching.

        The practical value
—  a good opportunity of using at the lessons of English  on secondary school.
It helps to achieve the best results in teaching English.

        The structure of the
paper:

The paper consists: The
Introduction, Chapter 1, where I have considered “Methodology as a science” ,
Chapter 2, “The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”,

And Chapter 3 “Learning
environment in teaching English conversation”, in the end of the paper I’ve
done the conclusions of the research , and used the certain literature. 

                    
Principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory

The following principles are
a condensation of J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner’s
theory:

-Intelligence is not
singular: intelligences are multiple.

-Every person is a unique
blend of dynamic intelligences.

-Intelligences vary in
development, both within and among individuals.

-All intelligences are
dynamic.

-Multiple intelligences can
be identified and described.

-Every person deserve
opportunities to recognize and develop the

 multiplicity of intelligences.

-The use of one of the
intelligences can be used to enhance another     intelligence.

-Personal background density
and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all
intelligences.

-All intelligences provide
alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless
of age or circumstance.

-A pure intelligence is
rarely seen.

-Developmental theory applies
to the theory of multiple intelligences.

-Any list of intelligences is
subject to change as we learn more about multiple intelligences.

According to Howard Gardner,
as presented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences,
human intelligence has the following criteria:

-Potential Isolation by Brain
Damage.

-The Existence of Idiot
[Autistic] Savants, Prodigies, and other   Exceptional Individuals.

-An Identifiable Core
Operation or Set of Operations.

-A Distinctive Developmental
History, along with a Definable Set of Expert "End-State"
Performances.

-An Evolutionary History and
Evolutionary Plausibility.

-Support from Experimental
Psychological Tasks.

-Support from Psychometric
Findings.

-Susceptibility to Encoding
in a Symbol System.

       Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new syllabus
for secondary school

      

         Comparing old and
the new English teaching syllabi for secondary

schools one can clearly see
some differences.

Let’s begin with the introductory
word. The introductory word of the old

syllabus covers only the
explanation of practical and educational

purposes of  English learning
and end-goals of  learning language

(listening, speaking, reading
and writing). The introductory part  of the

new syllabus includes:

1. Introduction.

2.Levels of speech
competence.

3.The principles of the
programme.

4. Educational purposes.

5. Grounds of content.

6. Methodological foundation
(basis) of modern teaching and learning

    English.

7. Control and essessment.

        Criteria of
essessment of pupils’ achievements (4 levels: elementary,

middle,sufficient, high) have
a special place in the new syllabus.  Such

information is not included
into the old syllabus.

       According to the new
sullabus  teaching English starts from the

second form.

Analyzing the topics of
conversation we can see that the old syllabus

gives us three main topics
from the fifth to the eleventh form: A Pupil and

His Environment; Ukraine;
English-Speaking Countries. The new

syllabus  provides with 6
topics already in the second form: About

myself, My Family and
Friends, School Life, Recreation, Nature, Man,

The Life of Society and 8
topics from the third to the 11th form.

         Analysing
communicative unit we find there speech functions and

examples of functional
exponents in the new syllabus, which are

not mentioned  in the old
syllabus.

Language competence includes
vocabulary, grammar and phonetics in

both syllabi, but in the old
syllabus the number of lexical units in each

form is fixed.

Sociocultural and
sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence

are not defined in the old
syllabus.

At the end of each year
specific demands to speech competence of pupils

(listening, monologue,
dialogue, reading, writing) are defined in the new

syllabus.

In general, the new syllabus
is much  but specific wider.

        

1.1. Methodology  as  a 
science

The  term “методика” 
has  several  correspondences  in  English: methodology, methods  and 
methodics. The  word  methodology  will  be  used  for  “методика”  and 
“методологія”  of  teaching  English  as  foreign  language 
[TEFL].

There  are  several 
definitions  of  this  term:

Methodology  (from  Greek 
methodos –  спосіб, шлях 
дослідження  або  пізнання, logos – поняття, вчення)  is  a  framework  of  organization  of  teaching  which  relates 
linguistic  theory  to  pedagogical  principles  and  techniques.[37,p.5]

Methodology  is  a  branch 
of  pedagogy  which  dealing  with  peculiarities  of  teaching  a  certain 
subject.[38,p.12]

Methodology  of  FLT  is  a 
body  of  scientifically  tested  theory  concerning  the  teaching  of 
foreign  languages  in  school  and  other  education  institutions.[37,p.17]

Methodology  is  a  system 
of  principles  and  ways  of  organization  and  construction  of 
theoretical  and  practical  activity  as  well  as   teaching  about  this 
system .[37,p.14]

Methodology  is  a  science 
which  studies  aims, contents, means, principles, techniques  and  methods 
of  a  system  of  instruction  and  education.[37,p.15]

   Methodology  is  a 
branch  of  didactics  which  relates a linguistic  theory  to  pedagogical 
principles  and  techniques.

The scholars’ve considered
the relation of methodology of  FLT to other sciences ( supplement 1).  

The  objective of the present
research    is    integrating  some aspects    of knowledge  of  English, 
didactics, psychology,  linguistics  to  formulate  basic  professional  and 
pedagogical  habits  and  skills. In  G. Rogova’s  opinion, methodology 
covers  three  main  points:

aims  of  TEFL;

content  of  TEFL;

methods ( supplement 2),
principles  and  techniques  of  TEFL.

But  it  becomes  evident 
that  the  three  components  do  not  constitute  the  whole 
teaching/learning  process. The  activities  of  learners  and  teachers,
their  interaction (symmetrical  or  assymetrical) and  the  role  of 
instruction  materials  are  the  outstanding  constituents. The  task  of 
methodology  is  to  integrate  the  relationships  among  them  and  to 
draft  requirements  for  each  of  them.

Teaching  a  subject  is 
viewed  here  not  simply  as  the  delivery  of  prescribed  formulate,
imparting  a  certain  amount  of  knowledge, but  also  developing  habits 
and  skills, but  also  as  activity.

To  attain  these  aims  in 
the  most  effective  way  constitutes  the  main  subject  of  any 
methodology. The  methodology  determines  the  laws, principles, aims,
content, methods, techniques  and  means  (media)  of  teaching. The  actual 
teaching  of  a  language  may  differ  in  the  analysis  of  what  is  to 
taught, in  the  planning  of  lessons, in  the  teaching  techniques  used,
in  the  type  and  amount  of  teaching  done  thought  mechanical  means 
and  finally, in  the  testing  of  what  has  been  learned.

Basic  Categories  Of 
Methodology

The  methodology  of  TEFL 
seems  to  embody  such  basic  categories  on  which  there  is  general 
agreement  among  those  who  have  studied  the  subject: methods, principles,
techniques, aims  and  means  of  instruction.

There  is  no  unanimity 
regarding  the  term  method  either. In  G. Rogova’s  et. al.  view  “method 
is  a  technological  operation, structural  and  functional  component  of 
the  teacher’s  and  learner’s  activity, realized  in  techniques  and 
principles  of  instruction. A  method  is  a  model  of  instruction  based 
on  definite  theoretical  provision, principle, techniques  and  aims  of 
instruction.

A  method  is  also  a 
specific  set  of  teaching  techniques  and  materials  generally  backed  by 
stated  principles.

A  method  determines  what 
and  how  much  taught  (selection), the  order  in  which  it  is  taught 
(gradation), and  how  the  meaning  and  form  are  conveyed  (presentation).
Since  presentation, drill  and  repetition  may  also  be  the  concern  of 
the  teacher, the  analysis  of  the  teaching/leaning  process  must  first 
determine  how  much  is  done  by  the  method  and  how  much  by  the 
teacher.

Aim  is  a  direction  or 
guidance  to  establish  a  course  or  procedure  to  be  followed. The 
teacher  should  formulate  long-term  goals, interim  aims  and  short-term 
objectives. What  changes  he  can  bring  about  in  his  pupils  at  the 
end  of  the  week, month, year, course, and  each  particular  lesson. Hence,
aims  are  planned  results  for  pupils  learning  a  FL. The  aims  are 
stipulated  by  syllabus  and  other  official  directives. They  are:
practical, instructional, educational  and  developing  (formative).

Practical  aims  cover 
habits  and  skills  which  pupils  acquire  in  using  a  foreign  language.
A  habit  is  an  automatic  response  to  specific  situation, acquired 
normally  as  a  result  of  repetition  and  learning.

A  skill  is  a  combination 
of  useful  habits  serving  a  definite  purpose  and  requiring  application 
of  certain  knowledge.

Instructional  aims 
developed   the  pupils  mental  capacities  and  intelligence  in  the 
process  of  FLL  (foreign  language  learning).

Educational  aims  help  the 
pupils  extend  their  knowledge  of  the  world  in  which  they  live.

Formative  or  developing 
aims  help  develop  in  learns  sensual  perception, motor, kinesthetic,
emotional  and  motivating  spheres.

Principles  are  basic 
underlying  theoretical  provisions  which  determine  the  choice  of 
methods, techniques  and  others  means  of  instruction.

Technique in  the 
methodology  of  TEFL  is  the  manner  of  presentation, demonstration,
consolidation  and  repetition.

Means  is  something  by 
the  use  or  help  of  which  a  desired  goal  is  attained  or  made  more 
likely. 

                  1.1.1.
Present-day  issues   of  TEFL

A  critical  review  of 
methods  currently  employed  in  TEFL/TESL  has  shown  no  consensus  on 
the  effective  way  to  facilitate  and  accelerate  English  learning. A 
shift  has  been  made  from  teacher-centered  activity  to  student-centered,
some  methodologists  even  claim  that  learning  is  more  important  than 
teaching  (Michael  West, Humanistic  Approach, Silent  Way).

Though  many  young 
teachers  still  teach  the  way  they  had  been  taught, it  can’t  be 
denied  that  current   thinking  in  methodology  constitutes  a  challenge 
to  convention  thinking  about  language  teaching.

One  of  the  conventional 
methods  of  TEFL  is  the  Grammar-Translation  method 
(G-TM):

The  goal  of  foreign 
language  (FL)  study,  using  this  method, is  to  learn  a  language  in 
order  to  read  its  literature  or  to  benefit  from  the  mental 
discipline  and  intellectual  development  that  result  from  FL  study.
G-TM  is  a  way  of  studying  language  that  approaches  the  language 
first  through  detailed  analysis  of  its  grammar  rules, followed  by 
application  of  the  knowledge  to  the  task  of  translating  sentences 
and   texts  into  and  out  of  the  target  language. The  first  language 
is  maintained  as  the  reference  system  in  the  acquisition  of  the 
second  language.

Reading  and  writing  are 
the  major  focus: little  or  no  systematic  attention  is  paid  to 
speaking  or  listening.

In  a  typical  G-T  text,
the  grammar  rules  are  presented  and  illustrated, a  list  of  vocabulary 
items  is  presented  with  their  translation  equivalents, and  translation 
exercise  a  prescribed.

the  sentence  is  the 
basic  unit  of  teaching  and  language  practice. Much  of  the  lesson  is 
devoted  to  translating  sentences  into  and  out  of  the  target  language,
and  it  is  this  focus  on  the  sentence  that  is  a  distinctive  feature 
of  the  method.

of grammar rules, which are
then practised through  translation Accuracy  is  emphasized. Students  are 
expected  to  attain  high  standarts  in  translation, because  of  “the 
high  priority  attached  to meticulous standards of accuracy which was
a prerequisite for passing the increasing number of formal written 
examinations that grew up during the century"

Grammar is taught
deductively, that is, by presentation and study
exercises.                                                    

The student’s native language
is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable
comparisons to be made between the FL and the student’s mother tongue. (G-TM
dominated in FLT from the 1840s to the 1940s, and in modified form it continues
to be widely used in some parts of the world  today).

 In the mid- and late
nineteenth centuries opposition to G- TM gradually developed in several
European countries. This Reform Movement, as it was referred to, laid the
foundations for the development of a new way of language teaching and raised
controversies that have continued to the present day.

From the 1880s, however,
practically minded linguists like Henry Sweet in England, Wilhelm Victor in
Germany and Paul Passy in France began to promote their intellectual leadership
needed to give reformist ideas  greater credibility and acceptance.

The main principles of their
theory were:

the study of the spoken
language;

phonetic training;

an inductive approach to the
teaching of grammar;

teaching new meanings through
establishing associations within the target language rather than
by establishing associations with  the mother
tongue;                                 

translation should be
avoided, although the mother tongue could be used in order to explain new words
or to check  comprehension.

The idea put forward by
members of the Reform Movement had a role to play in developing principles of
FLT out of naturalistic approach to language learning. This led to what has
been termed ‘natural method’ and ultimately led to the development of what came
to be known as the Direct  Method.

In the 1920s and 1930s
H.E.Palmer, A.S.Hornby and other British linguists developed an approach to
methodology that involved systematic principles of selection (the procedures by
which lexical and grammatical  content was chosen), gradation (principles by
which the organization and sequencing of content were determined), and
presentation (techniques used for presentation and practice of items in a
course). Their general principles were referred to as the oral approach to
language teaching. The characteristic feature of the approach was that new
language points were introduced and practised situationally.

Later the terms Structural
Situational Approach and Situational Language Teaching came into common
usage.                    

Like the Direct Method,
Situational Language Teaching (SLT) adopts an inductive approach to the
teaching of grammar. The meaning of words or structures is not to be given
through translation in either the native tongue or the target language but is
to be induced from the way the form is used in the situation. H.Palmer believed
that "if we give the meaning of a new word, either by translation into the
home language or by an equivalent in the same language, as soon as we
introduced it, we weaken the impression which the word makes on the mind".

Explanation is therefore
discouraged, and the learner is expected to deduce the meaning of a particular
structure or vocabulary item from the situation in which it is presented.

In 1939 the university of
Michigan developed the first English Language Institute in the United States.
It specialized in the training of teachers of English as a foreign language and
in teaching English as a second or foreign language.

The approach to FLT became
known as the Audio-Lingual Method. According to this method FL was taught by
systematic attention to pronunciation and by intensive oral drilling of its
basic sentence patterns.

The language teaching
theoreticians and methodologists who developed Audio-lingualism (Charles Fries,
William Moulton) believed that the use of the student’s native language should
be forbidden at early levels .

Translation as a teaching
device may be used where students need or benefit from it. It was one of the
principles of Communicative Language  Teaching  the  origins  of  which  are 
to  be  found  in  the  changes  in  the  British  language  teaching 
tradition  dating  from  the  late  1960’s.

Looking  back  from  the 
vantage  point  of  1990’s  we  can  see  that  the  Direct  Method,
Audio-Lingual   and  Communicative  Methods  have  their  rationale  and 
supporters, yet  they  are  not  equally  efficient  for  all  learners, and 
for  all  teachers, and  for  all  situations.

The  methodology  must  be 
flexible  and  electric, based  on  a  careful  selection  of  facets  of 
various  methods  and  their  integration  into  a  cohesive, coherent 
procedure. Of  central  importance  are  positive  attitudes  of  learners 
and  teachers; they  should  permeate  all  stages  of  teaching/learning 
process, make  every  learning  hour  a  stimulating, motivating  experience 
leading  to  pleasure  and  success  in  language  acquisition.

The  teacher’s  pivotal 
responsibility  is  to  imbue  students  with  confidence  and  self-esteem,
emotional  security  and  a  well-integrated  personality  that  will  make 
them  life-long  learners.

The  emerging  “paradigm 
shift”  in  teaching  strategies  needs  new  generalizations  which  will 
lead  to  improved  attitudes, and  better  results  in  teaching/learning 
process, which  will  be  beneficial  both  for  learners  and  teachers 
alike.

It  is  difficult  to 
predict  whether  the  Communicative  Method  will  last  any  longer  than 
its  predecessors  but  it  can’t  be  denied  that  the  work  of  the 
innovators  constitutes  a  challenge  to  convention  thinking  about 
language  teaching, which  is  unfortunately  “stubbornly”  adhered  by  many 
classroom  teachers  and  teacher-practitioners.

Current  Trends

What  is  current 
methodology? Do  we  have  to  abandon  all  we  have  learned  of  the 
Audio-Lingual  method, the  Direct  Method (DM), and  start  anew? Thus  far,
the  suggestions  for  change  have  been  gentle, but  we  have  not  been 
left  with  a  vacuum  to  be  filed. Judging  from  techniques  and  trends 
of  the  past  few  years, we  can  see  that  current  thinking  methodology 
seems  to  be  in  the  direction  of: – relaxation  of  some  extreme 
restrictions  of  A-LM  and  DM; – development  of  techniques  requiring  a 
more  active  use  of  the  students  mental  detail.

Let  us  examine  these  two 
trends  in  some  detail.

Teachers  have  found  that 
a  close  adherence  to  the  listening-speaking-reading-writing  order  has 
not  always  been  effective  and  brought  the  desired  results.

On  the  other  hand  a  lack 
of  such  adherence  has  not  proved  harmful. They  has  also  called  into 
question  the  theory  that  speech  is  primary  and  reading  and  writing 
are  secondary  manifestations. Such  theoretical  and  experimental 
rethinking  has  resulted  in  the  current  trend  toward  teaching  and 
testing  the  various  language  skills  in  more  integrated  way. The  close 
procedure  provides  an  interesting  and  thought-provoking  exercise, which 
trains  the  students  to  look  carefully  at  all  structural  clues  and 
to  range  around  within  a  semantic  field  for  related  concerts. It  is 
a  good  preparation  for  careful  reading  and  a  useful  overall  written 
test.

The  teachers  no  longer 
feel  the  need  to  defer  or  widely  separate  reading  and  writing 
lessons  from  listening  and  speaking  activities. 

Similarly  the  prohibition 
against  using  the  student’s  native  language  has  been  considerably 
relaxed. It  is  just  more  efficient  to  give  explanations  and 
instructions  in  the  native  language  because  it  affords  more  time  for 
really  meaningful  practice  in  English.

Notable  among  current 
trends  is  the  more  practical  recognition  of  the  varying  needs  of 
learners. If, for  instance, a  learner  needs  a  reading  knowledge  of 
English  above  all  else, then  reading  must  have  priority, and  the 
learner  must  learn  this  skill  through  specific  guided  practice  in 
reading.

Another  question  is 
whether  the  teacher  should  polish  learner’s  structure  so  as  to 
exclude  a  change  of  making  a  mistake. That  “prohibition”  of  errors 
way  largely  due  to  the  fear  that  mistakes  would  contribute  to  the 
creation  of  a  bad  habit. Now  that  the  “habit  theory” of  language 
acquisition  has  been  challenged  and  creative  aspects  of  language 
learning  emphasised, the  teacher  is  freed  from  this  fear. Student’s 
creative  involvement  is  more  important  to  the  learning  process  than  the 
mere  avoiding  of  errors  (this  doesn’t  mean  that  the  teacher  should 
not  correct  the  student  and  provide  necessary  drill  when  appropriate).

Teachers  for  some  time 
have  felt  a  need  of  moving  from  A-LM  (with  its  rigid  structure 
pattern)  to  a  less  controlled  situation  in  which  the  student  can 
communicate  his  own  ideas. Classroom  activities  may  be  grouped  into 
four  categories:

completely  manipulative;

predominantly  manipulative;

predominantly  communicative;

 completely  communicative.

Examples  of  completely 
manipulative  activity  would  be:

a) a drill in which the
students merely repeat  sentences after the teacher;

b) a simple substitution
drill ( by showing a picture or explaining a scene from the students
experience). The latter exercise could be made into a predominantly
manipulative drill, that is it would include a small element of communication).

In a more advanced class the
students retell a story the teacher has given them. Finally, an example of pure
communication would be a free conversation among the members of the class, such
as a role-playing, conference, etc.)     

                    

Cognitive Code-Learning
Theory (CC-LT) or the Trend toward Cognitive Activity

The trend toward a more
active use of the students’ mental powers probably represents the most
important effort of the cognitive theory of language acquisition. Advocates of
the A-LM often advised the teacher to keep students "active" — since,
they said, when a student is active he is learning. They advised him to have
all his students saying things aloud in English during as much of the class
period as possible. This was the chief reason for doing so much choral work. In
this way the greatest number of

students could be actively
participating — "using the language" as it was called .

Language learning is viewed
as rule acquisition, not habit formation. Instruction is often individualized:
learners are responsible for their own learning. Reading and writing are once
again as important as listening and speaking; errors are viewed as inevitable.

But the utility of such
"active" use of the language has been challenged by proponents of 
CC-LT. They point out that the mere mechanical repetition of language forms is
in reality passive rather than active learning, for  it is primarily —
sometimes almost entirely — a physical, mechanical sort of activity. It does
not begin to engage the student’s full mental powers. CC-LT, as a FLT method,
is based on the following principal assumptions:

1. language is a system of
signs, governed by its own rules;

2. CC-LT implies
recognition of form, perception of meaning, relations of universals and
particulars, generalisation and analogy;

3. the assimilation of
material is directly proportional to the degree of its 
comprehension;              

4. language is more than a
system of habits which can be formed through

Systematic drills;

5. language learning is a
creative process, therefore the student should

be as mentally active as
possible in all assigned work:

6. a) drills and exercises
should be meaningful;

b) deductive use of exercises
designed to teach grammar structures (deductive explanations, i.e. rule prior
to practice, starting with the rule and then offering examples to show how this
rule applies);

c) rote learning is to be
avoided;

d) reading and writing should
be taught at early stages along with

listening and speaking;

e) occasional use of
student’s native language for explanation of new grammar and vocabulary is
beneficial.

 The cognitive principles of
learning can conveniently be

summarised under three
headings:

1. the need for experience;

2. the process of
assimilation;

3. developmental stages.

 These three principles are
not only suited to adult learners but they have been readily adopted in the
primary school, and the following are suggestions for practicing cognitive
principles in the classroom with younger  children:

a) Give experience of  the
language they are learning — teach them poems, rhymes, songs, tell them
stories, talk to them.

b) Give them activities —
painting, modeling, playing game, etc.

c) Don’t stick rigidly to a
predetermined language syllabus — allow the activities that take place in the
class to range freely and develop naturally and let the occurrence of
stimulating events that happen in the environment influence the vocabulary and
structures that are introduced and practiced  in each lesson.

Viewing language learning as
a natural creative process rather than as habit formation, suggests that the
teacher should provide guided practice in thinking in the language rather than
a mere repetition drill. Such mental involvement tends to make language
learning more enjoyable tor the student, — hence improved attitudes and better
results.

It seems also appropriate to
remind ourselves that teaching involves much more than a knowledge of methods.
However well-versed a  teacher may be in psychological and linguistic theories,
in techniques and methodologies, his knowledge alone will not assure success.
An   even more basic ingredient of all good teaching is the teacher’s attitude
toward his students and his work.

We must recognise the
teacher’s compassionate, intelligent, individual approach to his work as the
essential factor in successful language
teaching,                                                

To sum it up, language in
CC-LT is viewed as an abstract model, governed by its own rules; language
material is assimilated in blocks, not  discretely i.e. in their constitutive
elements; assimilation is directly proportional to comprehension; frequency of
contrast is more important than frequency of repetition. According to this
theory assimilation of language is achieved by conscious control over
phonological, grammatical, and lexical models of a foreign language by way of
conscious learning and analysis.

And, finally, practice and
pedagogical experimenting shows that the priority of a certain methods is not
justified. Some specialists believe  that a creative synthesis of provisions of
every method (eclecticism) may yield good results. 

                                             

1.1.2. Current Concepts in
secondary school graduates EFL

While the field of teaching
English as a foreign language (EFL) to high

school graduates has its own
unique terms and concepts, it often draws

from the professional
vocabulary of other areas of education such as K-

12, adult basic education,
and higher education. This article presents a

selection of such terms and
concepts, discussing them as they are

applied in the adult ESL
context and citing sources where they are

described with adult
immigrant learners in mind. Some terms are broad,

representing theories or
approaches, while others might be more

accurately described as
methods or techniques. Most are mutually

supportive and can be
integrated in instruction to expand and enrich learning in any EFL setting.

Authentic or Alternative
Assessment

Authentic or alternative
assessment describes efforts to document learner achievement through activities
that require integration and application of knowledge and skills and are based
on classroom instruction. Ideally, these assessments are relevant to real-life
contexts and include activities such as creating a budget, completing a
project, or participating in an interview Authentic assessments are criterion
referenced, in that

criteria for successful
performance are established and clearly articulated. They focus

on the learning process as
well as the products and they include means for learner

self-assessment and
reflection. Often, authentic assessments are used in conjunction

with standardized tests to
provide a more complete picture of learner progress.

Examples of authentic assessment include performance-based assessment, learner
self-assessment, and portfolios. Performance-based assessment activities
require learners to integrate acquired knowledge and skills to solve realistic
or authentic problems, such as taking telephone messages, completing an
application, or giving directions. Self assessment refers to checklists, logs,
reflective journals, or

questionnaires completed by
learners that highlight their strategies, attitudes, feelings, and accomplishments
throughout the learning process .

Portfolio assessment consists
of a systematic collection of the learners’ work (such as writing samples,
journal entries, worksheets, recorded speech samples, or standardized test
results) to show individual progress toward meeting instructional objectives .

                    
Computer-Assisted Language Learning

The use of computer-based
technologies for language instruction is known as computer-assisted language
learning (CALL). Computer software, including multimedia applications, and the
Internet and the World Wide Web are examples of such technologies at use in
language programs today.

Computer technologies can
provide a course of instruction, facilitate activities and tasks, or create
opportunities for additional practice . CALL

can also be structured to
promoted teamwork and collaboration among the learners, a necessity for those
programs with limited access to technology . It can be incorporated in
instruction as an integral part of a class, as an option that learners access
individually, or in some combination of class-based and self-access models.

 Using technology can
sometimes be difficult. The planning

process should involve
consideration of at least the following elements: the needs and goals of the
program, instructional focus, staffing, software and hardware availability or
accessibility, learners’ learning goals; and learners’ and staffs’ experiences
with and attitudes toward computer use .

                             
Critical Literacy Theory

  Critical literacy theory
expands the discussion of literacy practice beyond the basic functions of
reading and writing. Where traditional literacy instruction might focus on
skills such as decoding, predicting, or summarizing, critical literacy theory
encourages critical examination of text, especially the social, political, and
ideological elements present. Based in the assumption that literacy practices
have the capability to

both reflect and shape the
issues and power relationships at play in the larger society, critical literacy
theory seeks to empower learners through development of critical and analytical
literacy skills .

  In the general sense,
critical literacy theory encourages teachers to create instructional activities
that help learners use analytical skills to question and respond to such
elements as perspective, purpose, effect, or relevance of what they read and
write.

 For example, a teacher might
prompt learners to distinguish fact from

opinion in a newspaper
editorial or to identify an author’s position on a topic and compare it to
their own. The focus is on the learner as decision maker and active interpreter
in reading and writing activities.

                       
Family and Intergenerational Literacy

    Family literacy has
traditionally described the use of literacy within the context of the family,
often as related to early childhood development and parental support of
children’s school achievement. Intergenerational literacy broadens that
description, recognizing that relationships between adults and children, both
within and outside the traditional definition of the family unit, affect the
literacy use and development of all involved. Family literacy programs for ESL
populations generally use family and

family relationships as
content and involve at least two generations of participants.

    The goals of family and
intergenerational literacy programs are varied. Some focus on the family and
school, seeking to increase parental involvement, improve communication,
increase schools’ responsiveness to communities, and support children’s
academic achievement . Others pursue broader objectives, such as furthering
literacy skills development and positive behaviors linked to reading for both
adults and children. Still others focus on facilitating the reconnection of
generations divided by different linguistic and cultural experiences.

                 Multiple
Intelligences and Learning Styles

Multiple intelligences and
learning style preferences both refer to the ways that individuals approach
information processing and learning. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple
intelligences proposes that there are at least seven different abilities that
individuals can develop to solve problems or create products:

  verbal/linguistic,

  musical,

  logical/mathematical,

  spatial/visual,

  bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, and

  intrapersonal .

Each intelligence is
distinguished by its own competencies and skills and directly influences the
way an individual will interpret and utilize information.
Learning styles are the broad preferences that learners tend to exhibit when
faced with new content or problems that need to be solved. These styles
encompass cognitive, affective, and behavioral elements, and describe learners
in terms of their preferences for group or individual learning contexts, the
degree to which they separate details

from complex backgrounds
(field dependent vs. field independent), or their affinity for analytic,
abstract perspectives as opposed to more integrated, comprehensive ones
(analytic vs. global) .

Awareness of different intelligences and learning styles, and individuals’
preferences for them can help teachers create positive learning experiences .
By varying instructional activities to accommodate learners’

preferences (lectures,
visuals, hands-on activities, songs) or by offering options for responses to
instruction (write a paper, create a model, give a demonstration), teachers can
support learners’ access to and understanding of content.

       Practitioner Inquiry,
Reflective Teaching, and Action Research

Practitioner inquiry,
reflective teaching, and action research refer to a teacher-centered approach
to professional and staff development. Like the learner-centered approach to
instruction, which focuses on the needs of the learners and respects them as
partners in the learning process, these approaches to professional development
put practitioners at the center of the process defining, investigating, and
addressing issues

in their own teaching .

    These models require
practitioners to become researchers and take a questioning stance towards their
work. Rather than focusing on their deficits, teachers concentrate on their
strengths and interests as means for enhancing their knowledge and teaching
skills . The following steps are usually part of the process: reflecting upon
practice as a means of identifying a problem or question; gathering information
on that problem or question; examining and reflecting on the data gathered;
planning some action based on the information; implementing the action planned;
monitoring and evaluating the changes that may or may not result

from the action; and
collaborating or sharing with colleagues . These

terms and similar variations
are often used interchangeably, their differences typically illustrating the
elements emphasized, in other words, reflective teaching highlights ongoing
self-assessment while action research focuses on planning, implementing, and
evaluating actual changes in the classroom.

                              
Project-based Education

      Project-based education
is an instructional approach that seeks to contextualize language learning by
involving learners in projects, rather than in isolated activities targeting
specific skills. Project-based learning activities generally integrate language
and cognitive skills, connect to real-life problems, generate high learner
interest, and involve some cooperative or group learning skills . Unlike
instruction where content is organized by themes that relate and contextualize
material to be learned, project-based learning presents learners with a problem
to solve or a product to produce. They must then plan and execute activities to
achieve

their objectives.

Projects selected may be complex and require an investment of time and
resources, or they may be more modest in scale. Examples of projects include a
class cookbook, an international food bazaar, a folktale-based story hour at a
local library, a neighborhood services directory, or a class web page . In the
selection of projects and activities, it is important to include learners’
input, as well as to consider carefully how the project will fit with overall
instructional goals and objectives .

Chapter 2.  Theory of
Multiple Intelligences.

2.1. Gardner’s Theory.

Arguing that "reason,
intelligence, logic, knowledge are not synonymous…," Howard Gardner
(1983) proposed a new view of intelligence that is rapidly being incorporated
in school curricula. In his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Gardner expanded
the concept of intelligence to also include such areas as music, spacial
relations, and

interpersonal knowledge in
addition to mathematical and linguistic ability.

This research discusses the
origins of Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, his definition of
intelligence, the incorporation of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences into
the classroom, and its role in alternative assessment practices.

                                            

                                  
Definition

     According to Howard
Gardner, as presented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
Intelligences, human intelligence has the following characteristics:

-A set of skills that enable
a person to resolve genuine problems     encountered in life.

-The Ability to create an
effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture.

-The Potential for
recognizing or creating problems, thereby establishing the necessity for the
new knowledge.

    Howard Gardner said in
his book: “it becomes necessary to say, once and for all, that there can never
be, a single irrefutable and universally accepted list of human intelligences.

    Though an exhaustive list
of every intelligence may not be possible, identifying intelligences is
important for at least two reasons:

-Classification of Human
Intellectual Competencies which will allow a better understanding of humanity.

-Identification of
Intellectual Strengths which will enable researchers to communicate more
accurately about the concept of Intellect.

                                
Seven Intelligences

    Gardner defines
intelligence as "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion product 
that are valued in one or more cultural setting". Using biological as well
as cultural  research, he formulated a list of seven intelligences. This  new
outlook on intelligence differs greatly from the traditional view which
usually  recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and computational. The seven
intelligences Gardner defines are:

2.1.1  Linguistic
Intelligence

  Linguistic intelligence (or
verbal-linguistic) is the ability to use with clarity the core operations of
language. It involves having a mastery of language. This intelligence includes
the ability to effectively manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically
or poetically. It also allows one to use language as a means to remember
information.

  People with linguistic
intelligence have a sensitivity to the meaning of words—the capacity to follow
rules of grammar, and, on carefully selected occasions, to violate them. At a
somewhat more sensory level—a sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, inflections,
and meters of words—that ability which can make even poetry in a foreign
tongue beautiful to hear. And a sensitivity to the different functions of
language—its potential to excite, convince, stimulate, convey information, or
simply to please.

People such as poets, authors, reporters, speakers, attorneys, talk-show hosts,
politicians, lecturers, and teachers may exhibit developed linguistic
intelligence.

2.1.2 Logical-Mathematical
Intelligence

   Logical-Mathematical
intelligence is logical and mathematical ability as well as scientific ability.
It consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think
logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and
mathematical thinking.

Abstraction is fundamental,
reasoning is complex, and problem-solution is natural.

Order and sequence are
significant. There is a drive to know causality as well as the explication of
existence.

People such as mathematicians, engineers, physicists, esearchers, astronomers,
and scientists may exhibit developed logical-mathematical intelligence.

2.1.3 Intra-Personal Intelligence

   Intra-Personal
intelligence is the ability to form an accurate model of oneself, and to use
that model to operate effectively in life. At a basic level, it is the capacity
to distinguish feelings of pleasure from emotional pain and , on the basis of
such discrimination, to become more involved in or to withdraw from a
situation. At the most advanced level, interpersonal intelligence is the
capacity to detect and to

symbolize complex and high
differentiated sets of feelings.

People such as some novelists, therapists, sages, psychologists, and
philosophers may exhibit developed intra-personal intelligence.

2.1.4 Inter-Personal
Intelligence

   Inter-personal
intelligence is the ability to notice and make distinctions among other
individuals and, in particular, among their moods, temperaments, motivations,
and intentions. Examined in its most elementary form, the inter-personal
intelligence entails the capacity of the young child to detect and discriminate
the various moods of

those around them. In an
advanced form, it permits a skilled adult to read the intentions and
desires—even when those desires have been hidden—of many other individuals
and, potentially, act upon this knowledge.

People such as politicians, religious leaders, and those in the helping
professions may exhibit developed inter-personal intelligence.

The last two intelligences
are separate from each other. Nevertheless, because of their close association
in most cultures, they are often linked together.

2.1.5 Musical Intelligence

   Musical intelligence (or
Musical-rhythmic) is the ability to use the core set of musical
elements—pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding the characteristic qualities
of a tone). Auditory functions are required for a person to develop this
intelligence in relation to pitch and tone, but it is not needed for the
knowledge of rhythm. There may be a hierarchy of difficulty involved in various
roles—composition, performance, listening.

People such as singers,
composers, instrumentalists, conductors, and those who enjoy, understand, use,
create, perform, and appreciate music and/or elements of music may exhibit
developed musical intelligence.

2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence

    Spatial intelligence (or
visual-spatial) is the capacity to perceive the world accurately, and to be
able to recreate one’s visual experience. It gives one the ability to
manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems. This
intelligence is not limited to visual domains—Gardner notes that spatial
intelligence is also formed in blind children. It entails a number of loosely
related capacities: the ability to recognize instances of the same element; the
ability to recognize transformations of

one element in another; the
capacity to conjure up mental imagery and then to transform that imagery; the
ability to produce a graphic likeness of spatial information; and the like. A
person with a good sense of direction or the ability to move and operate well
in the world would indicate spatial intelligence.

People such as sailors, engineers, surgeons, sculptors, painters,
cartographers, and architects may exhibit developed spatial intelligence.

2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic
Intelligence

Bodily-Kinesthetic
intelligence is the ability to use one’s mental abilities to coordinate one’s
own bodily movements and the ability to handle objects skillfully. This
intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity
are unrelated.

People such as actors, dancers, swimmers, acrobats, athletes, jugglers,

instrumentalists and artisans
may exhibit developed bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

2.1.8 Naturalistic
Intelligence

The following definition is
an abbreviation and adaptation by J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of
Howard Gardner’s theory:

Naturalistic intelligence is
the ability to understand, relate to, categorize, classify, comprehend, and
explain the things encountered in the world of nature.

  People such as farmers,
ranchers, hunters, gardeners, and animal handlers may exhibit developed
naturalistic intelligence.

Although the intelligences
are anatomically separated from each other, Gardner claims that the seven
intelligences very rarely operate independently. Rather, the

intelligences are used
concurrently and typically complement each other as individuals develop skills
or solve problems. For example, a dancer can excel in his art only if he has

1) strong musical
intelligence to understand the rhythm and

variations of the music,

2) interpersonal intelligence
to understand how he can inspire or emotionally move his audience through his
movements, as well as

3) bodily-kinesthetic
intelligence to provide him with the agility and coordination to complete the
movements successfully.

Basis for Intelligence

   Gardner argues that there
is both a biological and cultural basis for the multiple intelligences.
Neurobiological research indicates that learning is an outcome of the
modifications in the synaptic connections between cells. Primary elements of 
different types of learning are found in particular areas of the brain where
corresponding transformations have occurred. Thus, various types of learning
results in synaptic connections in different areas of the brain. For example,
injury to the Broca’s area of the brain will result in the loss of one’s
ability to verbally

communicate using proper
syntax. Nevertheless,this injury will not remove the patient’s understanding of
correct grammar and word usage.

In addition to biology,
Gardner (1983) argues that culture also plays a large role in the development
of the intelligences. All societies value different types of intelligences.

   The cultural value placed
upon the ability to perform certain tasks provides the motivation to become
skilled in those areas. Thus, while particular intelligences might be highly evolved
in many people of one culture, those same intelligences might not be as
developed in the individuals of another.

2.2. Psychological
analysis of Gardner’s  Theory

   Despite swings of the
pendulum between theoretical and applied concerns, the concept of intelligence
has remained central to the field of psychology. In the wake of  the Darwinian
revolution, when scientific psychology was just beginning, many scholars became
interested in the development of intelligence across species. The late 19th and
early 20th centuries were punctuated by volumes that delineated levels of

intelligence across species
and within the human species . Francis Galton (cousin of Charles Darwin) was
perhaps the first psychologically oriented scientist to try to measure the
intellect directly. Though

Galton (1870) had a
theoretical interest in the concept of intelligence, his work was by no means
unrelated to practical issues. A committed eugenicist, he sought to measure
intelligence and hoped, through proper "breeding," to increase the
overall intelligence of the population.

During the following half century, many of the most gifted and influential

psychologists concerned
themselves with the nature of human intelligence. Although  a few investigators
were interested principally in theoretical issues, most seasoned their concerns
with a practical orientation. Thus, Binet  and Terman  developed the first
general-purpose intelligence tests in their respective countries; Yerkes and
Wechsler created their own influential instruments. Even scientists with a
strong

theoretical bent, like
Spearman  and Thurstone , contributed either

directly or indirectly to the
devising of certain measurement techniques and the favoring of particular lines
of interpretation.

By midcentury, theories of intelligence had become a staple of psychology
textbooks, even as intelligence tests were taken for granted in many
industrialized countries.

Still, it is fair to say
that, within scientific psychology, interest in issues of intelligence waned to
some extent. Although psychometricians continued to perfect the instruments
that purported to measure human intellect and some new tests were introduced ,
for the most part, the burgeoning interest in cognitive matters bypassed the
area of intelligence.

This divorce between mainstream research psychology and the "applied
area" of intelligence might have continued indefinitely, but by the late
70s, there were signs of  a reawakening of interest in theoretical and research
aspects of intelligence. With his focus on the information-processing aspects
of items in psychological tests, Robert

Sternberg  was perhaps the
most important catalyst for this shift,

but researchers from a number
of different areas of psychology have joined in this rediscovery of the
centrality of intelligence .

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

A decade ago, Gardner found that his own research interests were leading him to
a heightened concern with issues of human intelligence. This concern grew out
of two disparate factors, one primarily theoretical, the other largely
practical.

  As a result of his own studies of the development and breakdown of cognitive
and symbol-using capacities, Gardner  became convinced that the Piagetian view
of intellect was flawed. Whereas Piaget  had

conceptualized all aspects of
symbol use as part of a single "semiotic function,"

empirical evidence was
accruing that the human mind may be quite modular in design. That is, separate
psychological processes appear to be involved in dealing with linguistic,
numerical, pictorial, gestural, and other kinds of symbolic systems .

  Individuals may be
precocious with one form of symbol use, without any necessary carryover to
other forms. By the same token, one form of symbol use may become seriously compromised
under conditions of brain damage, without correlative depreciation of other
symbolic capacities . Indeed, different forms of symbol use appear to be
subserved by different portions of the cerebral cortex.

On a more practical level, Gardner was disturbed by the nearly exclusive stress
in school on two forms of symbol use: linguistic symbolization and
logical-mathematical symbolization. Although these two forms are obviously
important in a scholastic setting, other varieties of symbol use also figure
prominently in human cognitive activity within and especially outside of
school. Moreover, the emphasis on linguistic and logical capacities was
overwhelming in the construction of items on intelligence,

aptitude, and achievement
tests. If different kinds of items were used, or different kinds of assessment
instruments devised, a quite different view of the human intellect might issue
forth.

   These and other factors led Gardner to a conceptualization of human
intellect that was more capacious. This took into account a wide variety of
human cognitive capacities, entailed many kinds of symbol systems, and
incorporated as well the skills valued in a variety of cultural and historical
settings. Realizing that he was stretching the word

intelligence beyond its
customary application in educational psychology, Gardner proposed the existence
of a number of relatively autonomous human intelligences. He defined
intelligence as the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are
valued in one or more cultural settings, and detailed a set of criteria for
what counts as a human intelligence.

  Gardner’s definition and his criteria deviated significantly from established
practices in the field of intelligence . Most definitions of intelligence focus
on the capacities that are important for success in school.

  Problem solving is
recognized as a crucial component, but the ability to

fashion a productto write a
symphony, execute a painting, stage a play, build up and manage an
organization, carry out an experimentis not included, presumably because the
aforementioned capacities cannot be probed adequately in short-answer tests.

Moreover, on the canonical
account, intelligence is presumed to be a universal, probably innate, capacity,
and so the diverse kinds of roles valued in different cultures are not
considered germane to a study of "raw intellect."

Investigators search for
items that predict who will succeed in school, even as they drop items that
fail to predict scholastic success. New tests are determined in part by the
degree of correlation with older, already accepted instruments. In sharp
contrast, existing psychometric instruments play no role in Gardner’s formulation.
Rather, a

candidate ability emerges as
an intelligence to the extent that it has recurred as an identifiable entity in
a number of different lines of study of human cognition.

To arrive at his list of intelligences, Gardner and his colleagues examined the
literature in several areas: the development of cognitive capacities in normal
individuals; the breakdown of cognitive capacities under various kinds of
organic pathology; the existence of abilities in "special
populations," such as prodigies, autistic individuals, idiots savants, and
learning-disabled children; forms of intellect that exist in different species;
forms of intellect valued in different cultures; the

evolution of cognition across
the millennia; and two forms of psychological evidencethe results of
factor-analytic studies of human cognitive capacities and the outcome of
studies of transfer and generalization. Candidate capacities that turned up
repeatedly in these disparate literatures made up a provisional list of human

intelligences, whereas
abilities that appeared only once or twice or were reconfigured differently in
diverse sources were abandoned from consideration.

   The methods and the
results of this massive survey are reported in detail in Frames of Mind  and
summarized in several other publications. Gardner’s provisional list includes
seven intelligences, each with its own component processes and subtypes (see
supplement 3). It is

claimed that, as a species,
human beings have evolved over the millennia to carry out at least these seven
forms of thinking. In a biological metaphor, these may be thought of as
different

mental "organs" ;
in a computational metaphor, these

may be construed as separate
information-processing devices . Although

all humans exhibit the range
of intelligences, individuals differ—presumably for both hereditary and
environmental reasons—in their current profile of intelligences.

Moreover, there is no
necessary correlation between any two intelligences, and they may indeed entail
quite distinct forms of perception, memory, and other psychological processes.
 
Although few occupations rely entirely on a single intelligence, different
roles typify the "end states" of each intelligence. For example, the
"linguistic" sensitivity to the sounds and construction of language
is exemplified by the poet, whereas the interpersonal ability to discern and
respond to the moods and motivations of other people is represented in the
therapist. Other occupations more clearly illustrate the

need for a blend of
intelligences. For instance, surgeons require both the acuity of spatial
intelligence to guide the scalpel and the dexterity of the bodily/kinesthetic
intelligence to handle it. Similarly, scientists often have to depend on their
linguistic intelligence to describe and explain the discoveries made using
their logical-mathematic intelligence, and they must employ interpersonal
intelligence in interacting with colleagues and in maintaining a productive and
smoothly functioning laboratory.

The Education and Assessment
of Intelligences

Until this point, we have been reviewing the history of intelligence research,

admittedly from the
perspective of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences (hereafter MI

Theory). Since the
publication of Frames of Mind , they and their

colleagues have been involved
in investigating its implications. On the one hand, we seek to determine the
scientific adequacy of the theory . On the other hand, in their view, a
principal value of the multiple intelligence perspectivebe it a theory or a
"mere" frameworklies in its potential

contributions to educational
reform. In both cases, progress seems to revolve around assessment.

   To demonstrate that the
intelligences are relatively independent of

one another and that
individuals have distinct profiles of intelligences, assessments of each
intelligence have to be developed. To take advantage of students’ multiple
intelligences, there must be some way to identify their strengths and
weaknesses reliably.

   Yet MI Theory grows out of a conviction that standardized tests, with their
almost xclusive stress on linguistic and logical skills, are limited. As a
result, the further development of MI Theory requires a fresh approach to
assessment, an approach consistent with the view that there are a number of
intelligences that are developedand can best be detectedin culturally
meaningful activities . In the remainder of the paper, the scholars describe
their approach to assessment and broadly survey

their efforts to assess
individual intelligences at different age levels. In addition, they report some
preliminary findings from one of their projects and their implications for the
confirmation (or disconfirmation) of  MI Theory.

   If, as argued, each intelligence displays a characteristic set of
psychological processes, it is important that these processes be assessed in an
"intelligence-fair" manner. In contrast to traditional
paper-and-pencil tests, with their inherent bias toward linguistic and logical
skills, intelligence-fair measures seek to respect the different modes of

thinking and performance that
distinguish each intelligence. Although spatial problems can be approached to
some degree through linguistic media (like verbal directions or word problems),
intelligence-fair methods place a premium on the abilities to perceive and
manipulate visual-spatial information in a direct manner. For example, the
spatial intelligence of children can be assessed through a mechanical

activity in which they are
asked to take apart and reassemble a meat grinder. The activity requires them
to "puzzle out" the structure of the object and then to discern or
remember the spatial information that will allow reassembly of the pieces.
Although linguistically inclined children may produce a running report about
the actions they

are taking, little verbal
skill is necessary (or helpful) for successful performance on such a task.

Whereas most standard approaches treat intelligence in isolation from the
activities of a particular culture, MI theory takes a sharply contrasting tack.
Intelligences are always conceptualized and assessed in terms of their cultural
manifestation in specific domains of endeavor and with reference to particular
adult "end states." Thus, even at

the preschool level, language
capacity is not assessed in terms of vocabulary, definitions, or similarities,
but rather as manifest in story telling (the novelist) and reporting (the
journalist). Instead of attempting to assess spatial skills in isolation, we
observe children as they are drawing (the artist) or taking apart and putting
together

objects (the mechanic).

Ideally, one might wish.to assess an intelligence in a culture-independent way,
but this goal has proved to be elusive and perhaps impossible to achieve. Cross-cultural
research and studies of cognition in the course of ordinary activities  have
demonstrated that performances are inevitably

dependent on a person’s
familiarity and experience with the materials and demands of the assessments.
In our own work, it rapidly became clear that meaningful assessment of an
intelligence was not possible if students

had little or no experience
with a particular subject matter or type of material. For example, our
examination of bodily-kinesthetic abilities in a movement assessment for
preschoolers was confounded by the fact that some four-year-olds had already
been to ballet classes, whereas others had never been asked to move their
bodies

expressively or in rhythm.
This recognition reinforced the notion that bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
cannot be assessed outside of a specific medium or without reference to a
history of prior experiences.

   Together, these demands for assessments that are intelligence fair, are
based on culturally valued activities, and take place within a familiar context
naturally lead to an approach that blurs the distinctions between curriculum
and assessment. Drawing information from the regular curriculum ensures that
the activities are familiar;

introducing activities in a
wide range of areas makes it possible to challenge and examine each
intelligence in an appropriate manner. Tying the activities to inviting
pursuits enables students to discover and develop abilities that in turn
increase their chances of experiencing a sense of engagement and of achieving
some success in their society.

                           Putting
Theory into Practice

    In the past five years, this approach to assessment has been explored in
projects at several different levels of schooling. At the junior and senior
high school level, Arts PROPEL, a collaborative project with the Educational
Testing Service and the Pittsburgh Public School System, seeks to assess growth
and learning in areas like music, imaginative writing, and visual arts, which
are neglected by most standard

measures .Arts PROPEL has
developed a series of modules, or "domain

projects," that serve
the goals of both curriculum and assessment. These projects feature sets of
exercises and curriculum activities organized around a concept central to a
specific artistic domainsuch as notation in music, character and dialogue in
play writing, and graphic composition in the visual arts. The drafts, sketches,
and final products generated by these and other curriculum activities are
collected in portfolios

(sometimes termed
"process-folios"), which serve as a basis for assessment of growth by
both the teacher and the student. Although the emphasis thus far has fallen on
local classroom assessments, efforts are also under way to develop criteria whereby
student accomplishment can be evaluated by external examiners.

   At the elementary level, Patricia Bolanos and her colleagues have used MI
theory to design an entire public school in downtown Indianapolis . Through a
variety of special classes (e.g., computing, bodily/kinesthetic activities) and
enrichment activities (a "flow" center and apprentice-like
"pods"), all children in the Key School are given the opportunity to
discover their areas of strength and to develop the full range of
intelligences. In addition, over the course of a year, each

child executes a number of
projects based on schoolwide themes, such as "Man and His
Environment" or "Changes in Time and Space." These projects are
presented and videotaped for subsequent study and analysis. A team of
researchers from Harvard Project Zero is now engaged in developing a set of
criteria whereby these videotaped projects can be assessed. Among the
dimensions under consideration are project

conceptualization,
effectiveness of presentation, technical quality of project, and originality,
as well as evidence for cooperative efforts and distinctive individual
features.

   A third effort, Project Spectrum, co-directed by David Feldman of Tufts
University, has developed a number of curriculum activities and assessment
options suited to the "child-centered" structure of many preschools
and kindergartens .

 At present, there are
fifteen different activities, each of which taps a

particular intelligence or
set of intelligences. Throughout the year, a Spectrum classroom is equipped
with "intelligence-fair" materials. Miniature replicas and props
invite children to deploy linguistic intelligence within the context of story
telling; household objects that children can take apart and reassemble
challenge children’s

spatial intelligence in a
mechanical task; a "discovery" area including natural objects like
rocks, bones, and shells enables children to use their logical abilities to
conduct small "experiments," comparisons, and classifications; and
group activities such as a biweekly creative movement session can be employed
to give children the

opportunity to exercise their
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence on a regular basis.

Provision of this variety of "high-affordance" materials allows
children to gain experiences that engage their several intelligences, even as
teachers have the chance unobtrusively to observe and assess children’s
strengths, interests, and proclivities.

More formal assessment of
intelligences is also possible. Researchers can administer specific games to
children and apply detailed scoring systems that have been developed for
research purposes. For instance, in the bus game, children’s ability to
organize numerical information is scored by noting the extent to which they can
keep track of the number of adults and children getting on and off a bus.
Adults and children and on and off constitute two different dimensions. Thus, a
child can receive

one of the following scores:

One dimensions recorded;

1.disorganized recording of
one dimension (either adults and children or on and off);

2.labeled, accurate recording
of one dimension;

3.disorganized recording of
two dimensions;

4.disorganized recording of
one dimension and labeled, accurate recording of one dimension; or 5labeled,
accurate recording of two dimensions .

  They have also created a related instrument, the Modified Spectrum Field
Inventory, that samples several intelligences in the course of two one-hour
sessions. Although this inventory does not draw directly from the curriculum,
it is based on the kinds of materials and activities that are common in many
preschools. In addition, related

materials from the Spectrum
curriculum can be implemented in the classroom to ensure that the children will
be familiar with the kinds of tasks and materials used in the inventory.

Preliminary Results from
Project Spectrum

Although none of these programs is in final form, and thus any evaluation must
be considered preliminary and tentative, the results so far at the pilot sites
seem promising. The value of rich and evocative materials has been amply
documented. In the classrooms in Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, and Boston, teachers
report heightened motivation on the part of the students, even as students
themselves appreciate the opportunity to reflect on their own growth and
development. Moreover, our programs with both older and younger children
confirm that a consideration of a broader range

of talents brings to the fore
individuals who previously had been considered unexceptional or even at risk
for school failure.

As for the assessment instruments under development, only those of Project
Spectrum have been field tested in classrooms. In 1987-89, they used these instruments
in two different settings to investigate the hypothesis that the intelligences
are largely independent of one another. To examine this hypothesis, we sought
to determine (a)

whether young children
exhibit distinct profiles of intellectual strengths and weaknesses, and (b)
whether or not performances on activities designed to tap different
intelligences are significantly correlated. In the 1987-88 academic year,
twenty children from a primarily white, upper-middle-income population took
part in a year-long Spectrum program. In the 1988-89 academic year, the
Modified Spectrum

Field Inventory was piloted
with fifteen children in a combined kindergarten and first-grade classroom.
This classroom was in a public school in a low- to middle-income school
district.

   In the preschool study, children were assessed on ten different activities
(story telling, drawing, singing, music perception, creative movement, social
analysis, hypothesis testing, assembly, calculation and counting, and number
and notational logic) as well as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth
Edition. To compare children’s

performances across each of
the activities, standard deviations were calculated for each activity. Children
who scored one or more standard deviations above the mean were judged to have a
strength on that activity; those who scored one or more standard deviations
below the mean were considered to have a weakness on that activity. This
analysis revealed that these children did not perform at the same level across
activities and suggested that they do have distinct intellectual profiles. Of
the

twenty children, fifteen
demonstrated a strength on at least one activity, and twelve

children showed a weakness on
one or more activities. In contrast, only one child was identified as having no
strengths or weaknesses, and her scores ranged from -.98 to +.87 standard
deviations from the mean.

These results were reinforced by the fact that, for the most part, children’s

performances on the
activities were independent. Using Spearman rank-order correlations, only the
number activities, both requiring logical-mathematical intelligence, proved
significantly correlated with one another (r = .78, p < .01).
In the other areas, music and science, where there were two assessments, there
were no

significant correlations.
Conceivably, this result can be attributed to the fact that the number
activities, both of which involved calculation, shared more features than the
music activities (singing and music perception) or the science activities
(hypothesis testing and mechanical skill). Of course, the small sample size
also may have contributed to the absence of powerful correlations among
measures.

  A comparison of the Spectrum and Stanford-Binet assessments revealed a
limited relationship between children’s performances on these different
instruments.

Spearman rank-order
correlations showed that only performances on the number activities were
significantly correlated with IQ (dinosaur game, r = .69, p <
.003; bus game, r = .51, p < .04). With its concentration on
logical-mathematic and linguistic skills, one might have expected a significant
correlation with the Spectrum language activity as well. Conceivably, there was
no significant correlation because the

Stanford-Binet measures
children’s vocabulary and comprehension, whereas Spectrum measures how children
use language within a story-telling task.

In the second study, eight kindergartners (four boys and four girls) and seven
first graders (five girls and two boys) were assessed on the seven activities
of the Modified Spectrum Field Inventory (MSPFI). This inventory, based on the
activities developed for the year-long Spectrum assessments of preschoolers,
consists of activities in the

areas of language
(storyboard), numbers and logic (bus game), mechanics (assembly), art
(drawing), music (xylophone games), social analysis (classroom model), and
movement (creative movement). These assessments were administered in two
one-hour sessions. Each activity was videotaped and children were scored by two

independent observers.
Spearman rank-order correlations between the scores of the

two observers ranged from .88
(language) to .97 (art) and demonstrated the interrater reliability of these
scores.

  As in the first study, strengths and weaknesses were estimated using standard
deviations. Unlike the findings from the earlier study, however, these results
revealed that some children performed quite well and others performed quite
poorly across many of the activities. It appears that the small sample size and
wide age ranges may have contributed to this result. Of the five first-grade
girls, none demonstrated a weakness in any area; all showed at least one
strength, with one girl having strengths

in six of the seven areas.
The two first-grade boys showed no strengths, and both demonstrated weaknesses
in three areas. Of the kindergartners, only two showed any strengths, with all
but one of the other children showing at least one weakness. Quite possibly,
these results reflect differences in developmental level, and perhaps gender

differences as well, that did
not obtain in the preschool sample and that may have overpowered certain
individual differences. It is also conceivable that a more extended exposure
to, and greater familiarity with, the Spectrum materials and activities, as in
the year-long Spectrum program, may have made the individual differences among
younger children more visible.

Nonetheless, an examination of children’s ranks on each of the activities
revealed a more complex picture. Although the first-grade girls dominated the
rankings, all but two children in the sample were ranked among the top five on
at least one occasion.

All but one child also scored
in the bottom five on at least one activity. Considered in this way, children
did exhibit relative strengths and weaknesses across the seven activities.

To determine whether or not performance on one activity was independent of
performance on the other activities, we standardized each of the scores with a
mean = O and standard deviation = 1 and performed Spearman rank-order
correlations. Because of the superior performance of the first-grade girls, the
performances of kindergartners and first graders were computed separately.

Consideration of the
kindergartners alone revealed only one correlation, between art and social
analysis, that approached significance (r = .66, p < .071).
For the sample of first graders, including the "high"-scoring girls,
there were a number of significant correlations: language and assembly (r
= .77, p < .04), language and numbers (r = .81,

p < .027), movement and social analysis (r =
.77, p < .04), and assembly and numbers (r = .79, p
< .034).

    With the exception of the performance of the first graders in the second
study, these results are reasonably consistent with the claims of Ml Theory.
For younger children, performances on the Spectrum activities were largely
independent, relative strengths and weaknesses were uncovered, and there was a
significant correlation between

preschoolers’ performances on
the Spectrum activities and the Stanford-Binet in one of the two areas where it
would be expected. Further investigations need to be conducted to establish
norms, to identify strengths and weaknesses consistently, and to examine fully
the effects of age and gendr on the Spectrum activities.

Chapter 3. Learning
environment in teaching English conversation

3.1. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
IN TEACHING ENGLISH LEARNERS TO THE SENIOR FORMS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL

 
    Accepting Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences has several
implications for teachers in terms of classroom instruction. The theory states
that all seven intelligences are needed to productively function in society.
Teachers, therefore, should think of all intelligences as equally important.
This is in great contrast to traditional education systems which typically
place a strong emphasis on the development and use of verbal and mathematical
intelligences. Thus, the Theory of Multiple Intelligences implies that
educators should recognize and teach to a broader range of talents and skills.

   Another implication is
that teachers should structure the presentation of material in a style which
engages most or all of the intelligences. For example, when teaching about the
revolutionary war, a teacher can show students battle maps, play revolutionary
war songs, organize a role play of the signing of the Declaration of
Independence, and have the students read a novel about life during that period.
This kind of presentation not only excites students about learning, but it also
allows a

teacher to reinforce the same
material in a variety of ways. By activating a wide assortment of
intelligences, teaching in this manner can facilitate a deeper understanding of
the subject material.

   Everyone is born
possessing the seven intelligences. Nevertheless, all students will come into
the classroom with different sets of developed intelligences. This means that
each child will have his own unique set of intellectual strengths and
weaknesses.

   These sets determine how
easy (or difficult) it is for a student to learn information when it is
presented in a particular manner. This is commonly referred to as a learning
style. Many learning styles can be found within one classroom. Therefore, it is
impossible, as well as impractical, for a teacher to accommodate every lesson
to all of

the learning styles found
within the classroom. Nevertheless the teacher can show students how to use
their more developed intelligences to assist in the understanding of a subject
which normally employs their weaker intelligences . For example, the teacher
can suggest that an especially musically intelligent child learn about the
revolutionary war by making up a song about what happened.

As the education system has
stressed the importance of developing mathematical and  linguistic
intelligences, it often bases student success only on the measured skills in
those two intelligences. Supporters of Gardner’s Theory of Multiple
Intelligences believe that this emphasis is unfair. Children whose musical
intelligences are highly

developed, for example, may
be overlooked for gifted programs or may be placed in a special education class
because they do not have the required math or language scores. Teachers must
seek to assess their students’ learning in ways which will give an accurate
overview of the their strengths and weaknesses.

     As children do not learn
in the same way, they cannot be assessed in a uniform fashion. Therefore, it is
important that a teacher create an "intelligence profiles" for each
student. Knowing how each student learns will allow the teacher to properly
assess the child’s progress . This individualized evaluation practice will
allow a teacher to make more informed decisions on what to teach and how to
present information.

     Traditional tests (e.g.,
multiple choice, short answer, essay…) require students to show their
knowledge in a predetermined manner. Supporters of Gardner’s theory claim that
a better approach to assessment is to allow students to explain the material in
their own ways using the different intelligences. Preferred assessment methods
include student portfolios, independent projects, student journals, and
assigning creative tasks.

 

3.1.1  Development of
students’ Speaking and Pronunciation Skills

      Communicative and whole
language instructional approaches promote integration of speaking, listening,
reading, and writing in ways that reflect natural language use. But
opportunities for speaking and listening require structure and planning if they
are to support language development. This digest describes what speaking
involves and

what good speakers do in the
process of expressing themselves. It also presents an outline for creating an
effective speaking lesson and for assessing learners’ speaking skills.Oral
communication skills in adult ESL instruction

    Outside the classroom,
listening is used twice as often as speaking, which in turn is used twice as
much as reading and writing . Inside the classroom, speaking and listening are
the most often used skills . They are

recognized as critical for
functioning in an English language context, both by teachers and by learners.
These skills are also logical instructional starting points when learners have
low literacy levels (in English or their native language) or limited formal education,
or when they come from language backgrounds with a non-Roman script or a
predominantly oral tradition. Further, with the drive to incorporate workforce
readiness skills into adult EFL instruction, practice time is being devoted to
such speaking skills as reporting, negotiating, clarifying, and problem solving
.

What speaking is

Speaking is an interactive
process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving
and processing information . Its

form and meaning are
dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants
themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the
purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving.

However, speech is not always
unpredictable. Language functions (or patterns) that tend to recur in certain
discourse situations (e.g., declining an invitation or requesting

time off from work), can be
identified and charted . For

example, when a salesperson
asks "May I help you?" the expected discourse sequence includes a
statement of need, response to the need, offer of appreciation, acknowledgement
of the appreciation, and a leave-taking exchange. Speaking requires that
learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as
grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary (linguistic competence), but
also that they

understand when, why, and in
what ways to produce language (sociolinguistic

competence). Finally, speech has its own skills, structures, and
conventions different from written language . A good speaker synthesizes this
array of skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speech act.

What a good speaker does

A speaker’s skills and speech
habits have an impact on the success of any exchange .

 Speakers must be able to
anticipate and then produce the expected

patterns of specific
discourse situations. They must also manage discrete elements such as
turn-taking, rephrasing, providing feedback, or redirecting .

 For example, a learner
involved in the exchange with the salesperson described previously must know
the usual pattern that such an interaction follows and access that knowledge as
the exchange progresses. The learner must also choose the correct vocabulary to
describe the item sought, rephrase or emphasize words to clarify the

description if the clerk does
not understand, and use appropriate facial expressions to indicate satisfaction
or dissatisfaction with the service. Other skills and knowledge that
instruction might address include the following:

producing the sounds, stress
patterns, rhythmic structures, and intonations of the language;

using grammar structures
accurately;

assessing characteristics of
the target audience, including shared knowledge or shared points of reference,
status and power relations of participants, interest levels, or differences in
perspectives;

selecting vocabulary that is
understandable and appropriate for the audience, the topic being discussed, and
the setting in which the speech act occurs;

applying strategies to
enhance comprehensibility, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, or
checking for listener comprehension;

using gestures or body
language; and paying attention to the success of the interaction and adjusting
components of speech such as vocabulary, rate of speech, and complexity of
grammar structures to maximize listener comprehension and involvement .

    Teachers should monitor
learners’ speech production to determine what skills and knowledge they already
have and what areas need development. Bailey and Savage’s New Ways in Teaching
Speaking , and Lewis’s New Ways in Teaching Adults  offer
suggestions for activities that can address different skills.

General outline of a speaking
lesson

Speaking lessons can follow
the usual pattern of preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, and
extension. The teacher can use the preparation step to establish a
context for the speaking task (where, when, why, and with whom it will occur)
and to initiate awareness of the speaking skill to be targeted (asking for
clarification, stressing key words, using reduced forms of words). In presentation,
the teacher can provide learners with a preproduction model that furthers
learner comprehension and helps them become more attentive observers of
language use. Practice involves learners in reproducing the targeted
structure, usually in a controlled or highly supported manner. Evaluation
involves directing attention to the skill being examined and asking learners to
monitor and assess their own progress. Finally, extension consists of
activities that ask learners to use the strategy or skill in a different
context or authentic communicative situation, or to integrate use of the new
skill or strategy with previously acquired ones (see supplement 4).

In-class speaking tasks

Although dialogues and
conversations are the most obvious and most often used speaking activities in
language classrooms, a teacher can select activities from a variety of tasks.
Brown  lists six possible task categories:

Imitative-

Drills in which the learner
simply repeats a phrase or structure (e.g., "Excuse me." or "Can
you help me?") for clarity and accuracy;

Intensive-

Drills or repetitions
focusing on specific phonological or grammatical points, such as minimal pairs
or repetition of a series of imperative sentences;

Responsive-

Short replies to teacher or
learner questions or comments, such as a series of answers to yes/no questions;

Transactional-

Dialogues conducted for the
purpose of information exchange, such as information-gathering interviews, role
plays, or debates;

Interpersonal-

Dialogues to establish or
maintain social relationships, such as personal interviews or casual
conversation role plays; and

Extensive-

Extended monologues such as
short speeches, oral reports, or oral summaries.

These tasks are not
sequential. Each can be used independently or they can be integrated with one
another, depending on learners’ needs. For example, if learners are not using
appropriate sentence intonations when participating in a transactional
activity that focuses on the skill of politely interrupting to make a point,
the teacher might decide to follow up with a brief imitative lesson
targeting this feature.

When presenting tasks,
teachers should tell learners about the language function to be produced in the
task and the real context(s) in which it usually occurs. They should provide
opportunities for interactive practice and build upon previous instruction as
necessary (Burns & Joyce, 1997). Teachers should also be careful not to
overload a speaking lesson with other new material such as numerous vocabulary
or grammatical structures. This can distract learners from the primary speaking
goals of the lesson.

Assessing speaking Speaking
assessments can take many forms, from oral sections of standardized tests such
as the Basic English Skills Test (BEST) or the English as a Second Language
Oral Assessment (ESLOA) to authentic assessments such as progress checklists,
analysis of taped speech samples, or anecdotal records of speech in classroom
interactions. Assessment instruments should reflect instruction and be
incorporated from the beginning stages of lesson planning . For example, if a
lesson focuses on producing and recognizing signals for turn-taking in a group
discussion, the assessment tool might be a checklist to be completed by the
teacher or learners in the course of the learners’ participation in the
discussion. Finally, criteria should be clearly defined and understandable to
both the teacher and the learners.

Improving secondary school
graduates EFL Learners’ Pronunciation Skills

Observations that limited
pronunciation skills can undermine learners’ self-confidence, restrict social
interactions, and negatively influence estimations of a speaker’s credibility
and abilities are not new . However, the current focus on communicative
approaches to English as a second language (ESL) instruction and the concern
for building teamwork and communication skills in an increasingly diverse
workplace are renewing interest in the role that pronunciation plays in adults’
overall communicative competence. As a result, pronunciation is emerging from
its often marginalized place in adult ESL instruction. This paper  reviews the
current status of pronunciation instruction in adult ESL classes. It provides
an overview of the factors that influence pronunciation mastery and suggests
ways to plan and implement pronunciation instruction.

Historical Perspective
Pronunciation instruction tends to be linked to the instructional method being
used . In the grammar-translation method of the past, pronunciation was almost
irrelevant and therefore seldom taught. In the audio-lingual method, learners
spent hours in the language lab listening to and repeating sounds and sound
combinations. With the emergence of more holistic, communicative methods and
approaches to EFL instruction, pronunciation is addressed within the context of
real communication .

   Factors Influencing
Pronunciation Mastery

Research has contributed some
important data on factors that can influence the learning and teaching of
pronunciation skills.

Age. The debate over the impact of age on language acquisition and
specifically pronunciation is varied. Some researchers argue that, after
puberty, lateralization (the assigning of linguistic functions to the different
brain hemispheres) is completed, and adults’ ability to distinguish and produce
native-like sounds is more limited. Others refer to the existence of sensitive
periods when various aspects of language acquisition occur, or to adults’ need
to re-adjust existing neural networks to accommodate new sounds. Most
researchers, however, agree that adults find pronunciation more difficult than
children do and that they probably will not achieve native-like pronunciation.
Yet experiences with language learning and the ability to self-monitor, which
come with age, can offset these limitations to some degree.

Amount and type of prior pronunciation instruction. Prior experiences
with pronunciation instruction may influence learners’ success with current
efforts. Learners at higher language proficiency levels may have developed
habitual, systematic pronunciation errors that must be identified and
addressed.

Aptitude. Individual capacity for learning languages has been debated.
Some researchers believe all learners have the same capacity to learn a second
language because they have learned a first language. Others assert that the
ability to recognize and internalize foreign sounds may be unequally developed
in different learners.

Learner attitude and motivation. Nonlinguistic factors related to an
individual’s personality and learning goals can influence achievement in
pronunciation. Attitude toward the target language, culture, and native
speakers; degree of acculturation (including exposure to and use of the target
language); personal identity issues; and motivation for learning can all
support or impede pronunciation skills development.

Native language. Most researchers agree that the learner’s first
language influences the pronunciation of the target language and is a
significant factor in accounting for foreign accents. So-called interference or
negative transfer from the first language is likely to cause errors in
aspiration, intonation, and rhythm in the target language.

The pronunciation of any one learner might be affected by a combination of
these factors. The key is to be aware of their existence so that they may be
considered in creating realistic and effective pronunciation goals and
development plans for the learners. For example, native-like pronunciation is
not likely to be a realistic goal for older learners; a learner who is a native
speaker of a tonal language, such as Vietnamese, will need assistance with
different pronunciation features than will a native Spanish speaker; and a
twenty-three year old engineer who knows he will be more respected and possibly
promoted if his pronunciation improves is likely to be responsive to direct
pronunciation instruction.

Language Features Involved in
Pronunciation

Two groups of features are
involved in pronunciation: segmentals and suprasegmentals. Segmentals
are the basic inventory of distinctive sounds and the way that they combine to
form a spoken language. In the case of North American English, this inventory
is comprised of 40 phonemes (15 vowels and 25 consonants), which are the basic
sounds that serve to distinguish words from one another. Pronunciation
instruction has often concentrated on the mastery of segmentals through
discrimination and production of target sounds via drills consisting of minimal
pairs like /bæd/-/bæt/ or /sIt/-/sît/.

Suprasegmentals transcend the level of individual sound production. They
extend across segmentals and are often produced unconsciously by native
speakers. Since suprasegmental elements provide crucial context and support
(they determine meaning) for segmental production, they are assuming a more
prominent place in pronunciation instruction .

 Suprasegmentals include the
following:

stress-a combination of
length, loudness, and pitch applied to syllables in a word (e.g., Happy,
FOOTball);

rhythm-the regular, patterned
beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses (e.g., with weak syllables
in lower case and stressed syllables in upper case: they WANT to GO Later.);

adjustments in connected
speech-modifications of sounds within and between words in streams of speech
(e.g., "ask him," /æsk hIm/ becomes /æs kIm/);

prominence-speaker’s act of
highlighting words to emphasize meaning or intent (e.g., Give me the BLUE one.
(not the yellow one); and

intonation-the rising and
falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences (e.g., Are you REAdy?).

Incorporating
Pronunciation in the Curriculum

In general, programs should
start by establishing long range oral communication goals and objectives that
identify pronunciation needs as well as speech functions and the contexts in
which they might occur . These goals and objectives should be realistic, aiming
for functional intelligibility (ability to make oneself relatively easily
understood), functional communicability (ability to meet the communication
needs one faces), and enhanced self-confidence in use . They should result from
a careful analysis and description of the learners’ needs . This analysis
should then be used to support selection and sequencing of the pronunciation
information and skills for each sub-group or proficiency level within the
larger learner group .

To determine the level of emphasis to be placed on pronunciation within the
curriculum, programs need to consider certain variables specific to their
contexts.

the learners (ages,
educational backgrounds, experiences with pronunciation instruction,
motivations, general English proficiency levels)

the instructional setting
(academic, workplace, English for specific purposes, literacy, conversation,
family literacy)

institutional variables
(teachers’ instructional and educational experiences, focus of curriculum,
availability of pronunciation materials, class size, availability of equipment)

linguistic variables
(learners’ native languages, diversity or lack of diversity of native languages
within the group)

methodological variables
(method or approach embraced by the program)

Incorporating
Pronunciation in Instruction

Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and
Goodwin  propose a framework that supports a communicative-cognitive approach
to teaching pronunciation. Preceded by a planning stage to identify learners’
needs, pedagogical priorities, and teachers’ readiness to teach pronunciation,
the framework for the teaching stage of the framework offers a structure for
creating effective pronunciation lessons and activities on the sound system and
other features of North American English pronunciation.

description and analysis of
the pronunciation feature to be targeted (raises learner awareness of the
specific feature)

listening discrimination
activities (learners listen for and practice recognizing the targeted feature)

controlled practice and
feedback (support learner production of the feature in a controlled context)

guided practice and feedback
(offer structured communication exercises in which learners can produce and
monitor for the targeted feature)

communicative practice and
feedback (provides opportunities for the learner to focus on content but also
get feedback on where specific pronunciation instruction is needed).

A lesson on word stress,
based on this framework, might look like the following:

The teacher presents a list
of vocabulary items from the current lesson, employing both correct and
incorrect word stress. After discussing the words and eliciting (if
appropriate) learners’ opinions on which are the correct versions, the concept
of word stress is introduced and modeled.

Learners listen for and
identify stressed syllables, using sequences of nonsense syllables of varying
lengths (e.g., da-DA, da-da-DA-da).

Learners go back to the list
of vocabulary items from step one and, in unison, indicate the correct stress
patterns of each word by clapping, emphasizing the stressed syllables with
louder claps. New words can be added to the list for continued practice if
necessary.

In pairs, learners take turns
reading a scripted dialogue. As one learner speaks, the other marks the stress
patterns on a printed copy. Learners provide one another with feedback on their
production and discrimination.

Learners make oral
presentations to the class on topics related to their current lesson. Included
in the assessment criteria for the activity are correct production and evidence
of self-monitoring of word stress.

In addition to careful
planning, teachers must be responsive to learners needs and explore a variety
of methods to help learners comprehend pronunciation features. Useful exercises
include the following:

Have learners touch their
throats to feel vibration or no vibration in sound production, to understand
voicing.

Have learners use mirrors to
see placement of tongue and lips or shape of the mouth.

Have learners use kazoos to
provide reinforcement of intonation patterns

Have learners stretch rubber
bands to illustrate lengths of vowels.

Provide visual or auditory
associations for a sound (a buzzing bee demonstrates the pronunciation of /z/).

Ask learners to hold up
fingers to indicate numbers of syllables in words.

3.1.2 Use the World Wide Web
in teaching English to secondary school       

          graduates

     The Internet – a network that links
computers all over the world – is now used widely by businesses, educators,
government staff, and individuals for information gatthering, entertainment,
commerce, and

Communication. Much has been
written about the use of Internet technologies such as e-mail, listsers,
bulletin boards, and newsgroups in ESL and foreign language classroom.

Skills developed through the
World Wide Web.

   Websites cover a wide
variety of topics and interests including health, entertainment, news,, and
sports. These sites provide information with which learners can interact in
order to built basic language and employability skills.

   A number of websites were
created especially for English learners and contain exercises in grammar,
vocabulary, writing, or reading.

   

with the help of many
websites we can develop the linguistic intelligence. It gives us opportunity to
write, listen and speak. We can speak with our partners in the UK or the USA
using computer’s Web. For example, one of my pupils likes to write letter by
e-mail. He gets more information not only about another country or city but he
learns the genuine English. He is developing the Linguistic Intelligence there.

with the help of Sound Card 
we can develop the Musical Intelli-    

     gence. If a person
listens to the music he (or she) feels the musical 

     elements —  pitch,
rhythm, and timbre (understanding the

     characteristic qualities
of a tone).

  

  

3.1.3 Use of the Video in
teaching English to secondary school graduates

    Video can be used in a
variety of instructional settings – in classrooms. In distance-learning sites
where information is broadcast from a central point to learners who interact
with a facilitatir via video or computer. It can be used in
teachers’profecional development or with students as ways of presenting
content, starting corversations, and providing illustration for concepts.
Students or senior pupils can create their own videotapes as content for the
class. It provides the development of MI.

        There are such
advantages there:

 

    There are a number of
good reasons to use video in the senior forms . Video combines visual and audio
stimuli, is accessible to those who have not yet learned to read and write
well, and provides context for leanning. As for TEFL, video has the added
benefit of providing real language and cultural information. Video can be
controlled (stopped, paused, repeated), and it can be presented to a group of
students, to individuals. It allows learners to see facial expressions and body
language at the same time as they hear the stress, intonation, and rhythms of
the language.

   Authentic videos.

   Many excellent videos
present real language and the senior pupils can hear the genuine language.
These videos include movies, television programmes, and news broadcasts; they
can provide a realistic view of American culture.

   Challenges

       The use of authentic
videos is challenging. Often they do not provide the best means of explaining
complex concepts or practicing particular grammar or writing skills.

It takes time for the teacher
to preview and select authentic videos and then to prepare activities for
learners. As the language use and the context of authentic videos are not
controlled, teachers will need to take time these.

   Selecting videos.

     The  teachers have to
ask themselves the following questions before choosing a video or video series:

 

—    
Inspiration/Motivation/Interest:

 Will the video appeal to to
my students? Will it make them want to learn?

Content:

 Does the content match my
instructional goals? Is it culturally appropriate for my learners.

 Clarity of message:

Is the instructional message
clear to my students?Here the teacher is vital. Preparing the learners to
understand what they are going to watch makes the difference between time
wasted and time well spent.

Pacing:

Is the rate of the language
or instruction too fast for my students?

Graphics:

What graphics are used to
explain a concept? Do they clarify it? Do they appear on screen long enough to
be understood by the learner? In some instructional videos, graphics , charts,
and even language patterns may be on the screen too briefly to be fully
comprehended.

Length of sequence:

Is the sequence to be shown
short enough? With ESL learners, segments that are less than five minutes are
often sufficient. A two- to three- minute segment can easiely furnish enough
material for one -hour lesson.

Independence of sequence:

Can this segment be
understood without lengthy explanations of the plot, setting, and preceding and
following it? Teachers need to decide whether it’s worth investing the time and
effort to prepare learners to understand the context of certain language and
cultural nuances, or distinctions.

Availability and quality of
related materials:

What print materials
accompany the video.

Use of videos:

How will I use the video?

After the viewing, the
teacher have to discuss the films with the senior pupils.

Videos are a powerful tool in
helping English language learners improve their language skills. They provide
the learner with content, context, and language. Videos will play an increase
role in prividing ESL instruction to students in the classroom. The students
get more information about U.S. culture.  

Conclusions

  1.Multiple Intelligences
are used as strategy for TEFL.

  2.According to the
structure there are seven intelligences:

Logical-Mathematical
Intelligence,

Linguistic Intelligence,

Spatial Intelligence,

Musical Intelligence,

Bodily-Kinesthetic
Intelligence,

The Personal Intelligence,

Intrapersonal Intelligence.

 3.With the help of these
Intelligences we can teach English.

 4.According to Howard
Gardner’s theory there are such principles:

1.Intelligence is not
singular: intelligences are multiple.

2.Every person is a unique
blend of dynamic intelligences.

3.Intelligences vary in
development, both within and among individuals.

4.All intelligences are
dynamic.

5.Multiple intelligences can
be identified and described.

6.Every person deserve
opportunities to recognize and develop the multiplicity of intelligences.

7.The use of one of the
intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence.

8.Personal background density
and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all
intelligences.

9.All intelligences provide
alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless
of age or circumstance.

10.A pure intelligence is
rarely seen.

11.Developmental theory
applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.

    I have sketched the background and the major claims of a new

approach to the
conceptualization and assessment of human intelligence. Put forth in 1983, the
theory of multiple intelligences has inspired a number of
research-and-development projects that are taking place in schools ranging from
preschool through high school. Until now, our focus has fallen largely on the
development of instruments that can assess strengths and weaknesses in an
"intelligence-fair" way.

   This
research-and-development process has proved time consuming and costly. The
measures must involve materials that are appealing and familiar to children;
there is little precedent for developing scoring systems that go beyond
linguistic and logical

criteria; and materials
appropriate for one age group, gender, or social class may not be appropriate
for others. Of course, it should be recalled that huge amounts of time and
money have already been invested in standard psychometric instruments, whose

limitations have become
increasingly evident in recent years.

   Once adequate materials have been developed, it becomes possible to begin to
address some of the theoretical claims that grow out of MI Theory. They have
presented here some preliminary findings from one of our current projects.
These results give some support to the major claims of the theory, inasmuch as
children ranging in age from three to seven do exhibit profiles of relative
strength and weakness. At the same time,

even these preliminary data
indicate that the final story on Multiple Intelligences may turn out to be more
complex than we envisioned. Thus, the rather different profile of results
obtained with our two young populations indicates that, in future research, we
must pay closer attention to three factors: (a) the developmental
appropriateness of the

materials; (b) the social
class background, which may well exert an influence on a child’s ability and
willingness to engage with diverse materials; and (c) the exact deployment of
the Spectrum materials and assessment instruments in the classroom.

  Some critics have suggested that MI Theory cannot be disconfirmed. The
preliminary results presented here indicate some of the ways in which its
central claims can indeed be challenged. If future assessments do not reveal
strengths and weaknesses within a population, if performances on different
activities prove to be systematically correlated, and if constructs (and
instruments) like the IQ explain the preponderance

of the variance on activities
configured to tap specific intelligences, then MI Theory will have to be
revamped. Even so, the goal of detecting distinctive human strengths, and using
them as a basis for engagement and learning, may prove to be
worthwhile,irrespective of the scientific fate of the theory.

   Schools have often sought
to help students develop a sense of accomplishment and self-confidence.
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a theoretical

foundation for recognizing
the different abilities and talents of students. This theory acknowledges that
while all students may not be verbally or mathematically gifted,

children may have an
expertise in other areas, such as music, spatial relations, or interpersonal
knowledge. Approaching and assessing learning in this manner allows a

wider range of students to
successfully participate in classroom learning.

Speaking is key to
communication. By considering what good speakers do, what speaking tasks can be
used in class, and what specific needs learners report, teachers can help
learners improve their speaking and overall oral competency.

Pronunciation can be one of
the most difficult parts of a language for adult learners to master and one of
the least favorite topics for teachers to address in the classroom.
Nevertheless, with careful preparation and integration, pronunciation can play
an important role in supporting learners’ overall communicative power.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Supplements

Supplement 1. Relation  of  the  Methodology  of  Foreign  Language

                     Teaching  to 
other  sciences

Methods  of  foreign 
language  teaching  is  understood  here  as  a  body  of  scientifically 
tested  theory  concerning  the  teaching  of  foreign  languages  in  schools 
and  others  educational  institutions. It  covers  three  main  problems:

1.   aims  of  teaching  a  foreign 
language;

2.   content  of  teaching, i.e. what  to 
teach  to  attain  the  aims;

3.   methods  and  techniques  of 
teaching, i.e.  how  to  teach  a  foreign  language  to  attain  the  aims 
in  the  most  effective  way.

Methods  of  foreign 
language  teaching  is  closely  related  to  other  sciences  such  as 
pedagogies, psychology, physiology, linguistics  and  some  others.

Pedagogics  is  the  science 
concerned  with  the  teaching  and  education  of  the  younger  generation.
Since  Methods  also  deals  with  the  problems  of  teaching  and  education,
it  is  most  closely  related  to  pedagogics. To  study  foreign  language 
teaching  one  must  know  pedagogics. One  branch  of  pedagogics  is  called 
didactics. Didactics  studies  general  ways  of  teaching  in  schools.
Methods, as  compared  to  didactics, studies  the  specific  ways  of 
teaching  a  definite  subject. Thus, it  may  be  considered  special 
didactics. In  the  foreign  language  teaching, as  well  as  in  the 
teaching  of  mathematics, history  and  other  subjects  taught  in  schools,
general  principles  of  didactics  are  applied  and, in  their  turn,
influence  and  enrich  didactics. For  example, the  so-called  “principle  of
visualization" was first introduced  in  teaching  foreign languages. Now 
it  has  become  one  of  the fundamental  prin­ciples  of  didactics  and  is 
used  in  teaching  all  school  subjects  without  exception. Programmed 
instruction  was  first  ap­plied  to  teaching  mathematics. Now through
didactics it is used in teaching many subjects, including foreign lan­guages.

Teaching  a  foreign 
language  means first  and  foremost  the formation and development  of 
pupils’ habits  and  skills  in  hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. We
cannot ex­pect to develop such habits and skills of our pupils effec­tively if
we do not know and take into account the p s y c h o l o g y  of  habits  and 
skills, the  ways  of  forming  them, the  influence of  formerly acquired
habits ‘on the formation of new ones, and  many  other  necessary factors 
that  psychology  can supply  us  with. At  present  we  have  much  material 
in  the field  of  psychology  which  can  be  applied  to  teaching  a  foreign
 language. For example, N. I. Zhinkin, in  his  investigation  of  the mecha­nisms 
of  speech  came  to the conclusion that  words  and  rules of combining  them 
are  most  probably  dormant  in  the kinetic center of  the  brain. When  the 
ear  receives  a  signal  it  reaches  the brain, its  hearing  center  and
then  passes  to  the  kinetic  center. Thus, if a teacher wants his pupils to
speak English he must  use  all  the  opportunities he has to make them hear
and speak it. Furthermore, to master a sec­ond  language  is to acquire another
code, another  way of   receiving and transmitting information. To  create 
this  new code in  the most  effective way one must  take  into  consid­eration 
certain  psychological  factors.

Effective  learning  of
a  foreign  language  depends  to  a great  extent  on  the pupils’ memory.
That  is  why  a  teacher  must know how he can help his pupils to successfully
memorize  and  retain  in  memory  the  language  material  they  learn. Here 
again  psychological  investigations  are  significant.  In learning  a 
subject  both  voluntary  and  in­voluntary  memory  is  of great  importance.
In  his  investigation  of  involuntary memory P. K. Zinchenko  came  to  the 
con­clusion  that  this  memory  is  retentive. Consequently, in teaching  a 
foreign  language  we  should  create  favourable  conditions  for  involuntary
memorizing. P. K. Zinchenko  showed  that  involuntary  memorizing  is 
possible  only  when

pupils  attention  is  concentrated 
not  on  fixing  the  material  in  their  memory  through numerous 
repetitions,  but  on  solv­ing  some  mental  problems  which  deal  with 
this  material. To  prove  this  the  following  experiment  was carried out.
Students of group A were given  a  list  of  words  to  memorize 
(voluntary memorizing). Students of  group B did not re­ceive a list of words
to memorize. Instead, they got  an  English  text  and  some  assignments 
which  made  them  work  with  these  words, use  them  in  answering  various 
questions. Dur­ing  the  next  lesson  a  vocabulary  test  was given  to  the 
stu­dents  of  both  groups. The  results  were  approximately  the  same. A 
test  given  a  fortnight  later  proved, however,  that  the  students  of 
group  B  retained  the  words  in  their memory   much  better than 
the students of group A. This shows  that  involuntary  memorizing  may 
be  more retentive under certain circumstances. Experiments  by  prominent 
scientists  show  that  psychology  helps  Methods  to  determine  the role 
of  the  mother  tongue in different stages of teaching; the amount of material
for pupils to assimilate at every stage of instruc­tion; the sequence and ways
in which various habits and skills should be developed; the methods and
techniques  which  are  more  suitable  for  presenting  the  material  and 
for  ensuring  its retention  by  the  pupils, and so on.

Methods  of  foreign  language 
teaching  has a definite relation  to  p h y s i o 1 o g y  of  the higher
nervous system. Pavlov’s  theories  of  "conditioned reflexes", of
the "second signaling system" and of "dynamic stereotype"
are the examples. Each of these interrelated theories bears a direct  relation 
to  the teaching  of  a  foreign  language.

According  to  Pavlov 
habits  are conditioned reflexes,  and  a  conditioned  reflex  is  an action 
performed  automatically  in  response  to  a  definite  stimulus  as  a
result  of previ- ous  frequent  repetitions  of  the  same  action. If we,
thoroughly study the  theory of conditioned  reflexes  we shall   see  that 
it  explains  and confirms the necessity for frequent repetitions and revision
of material pupils study as one of the means of inculcating habits. Pavlov
showed  that  man’s  higher  nervous  activities — speaking  and  thinking —
are  the  func­tions  of  a  special  system  of  organic  structures  within 
the  nervous  system. This system is  developed  only  in  man. It  enables 
the  brain  to  respond  to  inner  stimuli  as  it  responds  to outer stimuli
or signals perceived through the sense or­gans. Pavlov  named  this  the 
second  signaling  system.

Consequently one of the
forms of human behaviour  is  language behaviour, i. e., speech response  to
different  communica­tion  situations. Therefore  in  teaching  a  foreign 
language we  must  bear  in  mind  that pupils  should  acquire  the language
they  study  as  a  behaviour, as something  that  helps  people  to 
communicate  with  each  other  in various real situations  of  intercourse.
Hence a  foreign  language  should  be  taught  through such  situations.

Pavlov’s 
theory  of "dynamic stereotype"  also  furnishes  the  physiological 
base  for many  important  principles of language teaching, e. g., for the
topical vocabulary ar­rangement.                              

Methods 
of  foreign  language  teaching  is  most  closely  related  to  linguistics,
since linguistics  deals  with  the  problems  which  are of paramount 
importance  to  Meth­ods, with language and thinking, grammar and vocabulary,
the relationship between grammar and vocabulary, and many others. Methods 
successfully  uses, for example, the results of linguistic  investigation  in 
the  selection  and  arrangement  of  language  material  for teaching. It  is 
known  that  structur­al  linguistics  has  had  a  great  impact on  language 
teach­ing. Teaching materials  have ‘been prepared  by  linguists and
methodologists  of  the structural school. Many  prom­inent  linguists  have 
not  only  developed  the  theory of lin­guistics, but  tried  to  apply  it 
to  language  teaching. The  following  quotation  may  serve  as a  proof  of 
this:

"It 
has  occurred  to  the  linguist  as  well  a s to  the  psycholo­gist  that 
the  foreign  language classroom  should  be  an  excel­lent  laboratory  in 
which  to  test  new  theories of language  acquisition."

Methods
of  foreign  language  teaching  like  any  other  sci­ence, has  definite 
ways  of  investigating  the  problems  which  may arise. They are:

1. a critical study of
the ways foreign languages were taught in our country and abroad;

2. a thorough  study 
and  summing up of the experience of the best foreign language teachers in
different types of schools;

3. experimenting with the
aim of confirming or refuting  the  working  hypotheses  that  may  arise 
during  investigation. Experimenting  becomes  more  and  more popular  with
methodologists. In  experimenting  methodologists  have to deal with different
data, that is why in arranging  research  work  they  use mathematics,
statistics, and  probability  theory  to interpret  experimental  results.

In  recent  years  there 
has  been  a  great  increase  of  interest  in  Methods  since foreign
language "teaching  has  many  attrac­tions  as  an  area  for  research.
A  great  deal of useful  research  work  has  been  carried out. New  ideas 
and  new  data  pro­duced  as  the result  of  research  are  usually developed
into new teaching materials and teaching techniques.

It  should  be  said  that 
we  need  research  activities  of the  following  types: descriptive research 
which  deals  with "what to teach"; experimental  and  instrumental 
research  dealing with "how to teach". More  research  is  now 
needed  which  compares  different  combination of  devices, various  teaching
aids.  

         Supplement 2. Methods  of  Foreign  Language 
Teaching

At  the  term  of  the 
17th  century  Volfgang  Ratichius  (1571-1635)  complained  about 
contemporary  methods  of  LT  stressed  rote  learning  and  grammar  at  the 
expense of  reading  and  spearing. He  initiated  the  principle  of 
cognitive  leaning  of  Latin  translation  as  a  basic  means  of 
semantization  and  emphasized  on  repetition  as  a  favored  technique. But 
it  remained  for  his  successor, the  famous  Czech  educator  Ian  Comenius 
(1592-1670)  to  devise  new  methods  of  LT  based  on  new  principles.
Instead  of  rules, I. Comenius  used  imitation, repetition  and  plently  of 
practice  in  both  reading  and  speaking.

In  1631  Ian  Comenius 
published  his  book  “Ianua  linguarum  reserata” – “The  Gates  of 
Languages  Unlocked”  in  which  he  described  new  methods  of  language  teaching 
based  on  his  principles. The  book  included  a  limited  vocabulary  of  a 
few  thousand  word; each  used  in  a  sentence  which  gave  some 
indication  of  meaning.

“Orbis  Pictus”  (1658) 
is  another  book  by  Ian  Comenius  in  which  a  Latin  text  is 
accompanied  by  illustrations  and  translations  into  the  mother  tongue.
Great  attention  is  paid  to  direct  associations  between  the  word  in 
a  FL  and  an  object  it  denotes. In  this  way  the  role  of  the  mother 
tongue  was  limited. Ian  Comenius  recommended  the  following  principles:

–  
from  easy  to 
difficult;

–  
from  simple  to 
complex;

–  
from  know  to 
unknown.

 Language  teaching 
remained  the  chief  concern  of  Ian  Comenius. His  “Linguarum  methodus 
novissima” (Contemporary/modern  methods  revised)  contains  one  of  the 
first  attempts  to  teach  grammar  inductively. “Didactica  Magna”  was  a 
more  ambitious  work  that  went  beyong  language  teaching  and  laid  the 
foundations  for  modern  pedagogy.

Grammar-Translation 
Method

This  method  has  been 
with  us  through  the  centuries  and  is  still  with  us. It  has  had 
different  names; at  one  time  it  was  called  Classical  Method  since  it 
was  used  in  the  teaching  of  the  classical  language, Latin  and  Greek.
The  method  involves  many  written  exercises, much  translation  and 
lengthy  vocabulary  lists. The  teacher  describes  in  detail  the  grammar 
of  the  language, focusing  on  the  form  and  infection   of  words. This 
method  aims  at  providing  an  understanding  of  the  grammar  of  the 
language  in  question  expressed  in  traditional  terms, and  at  training 
the  students  to  read  and  write  the  target  language, rather  than  mastering 
the  oral  and  aural  skills. To  do  this  the  students  need  to  learn 
the  grammar  rules  and  vocabulary  of  the  target  language. It  was 
hoped  that, by  doing  this  students  would  become  more  familiar  with 
the  grammar  of  the  native  language  and  that  this  familiarity  would 
help  them  speak  and  write  their  native  language  better. It  was  also 
thought  that  foreign  language  learning  would  help  students  grow 
intellectually; it  was  recognized  that  students  would  probably  never 
use  the  target  language, but  the  mental  exercise  of  learning  it 
would  be  beneficial  anyway.

Students  study  grammar 
deductively: that  is, they  are  given  rules  and  examples, they  are  told 
to  memorise  then, and  then  are  asked  to  apply  rules  to  other 
examples. They  also  learn  grammatical  paradigms  such  as  the  plural  of 
nouns, degrees  of  comparison  of  adjectives  and  adverbs, verb 
conjugations. They  memories  native  language  equivalents  for  foreign 
language  vocabulary  lists.

The  techniques  of 
G-TM  imply  bilingual  vocabulary  lists, written  exercises, elaborate 
grammatical  explanations, translation, and  total  involvement  in  reading 
and  writing.

The  objectives  of 
G-TM  are  non-utilitarian – confined  to  understanding  of  literature 
which  gives  keys  to  great  classical  culture.

The  advantages  of 
this  method  lie  in  its  limited  objectives: understanding  of  written 
language  and  some  basic  writing  and  translation. The  method  is  not 
demanding  for  the  teacher  (simple  preparation  from  a  textbook  and 
little  physical  endeavour).

The  disadvantages  of 
this  method  include  a  total  neglect  of  spoken  language, communication 
skills, use  of  esoteric  vocabulary, and  monotonous  procedure  in  class.

Thus  the 
Grammar-Translation  Method  is  simply  a  combination  of  the  activities 
of  grammar  and  translation. The  teacher  begins  with  rules  isolated 
vocabulary  items, paradigms  and  translation. Pronunciation  either  is  not 
taught  or  is  limited  to  a  few  introductory  notes. Grammar  rules  are 
memorized  as  units, which  sometimes  include  illustrative  sentences.

Harold 
Palmer’s  Method

Harold  Palmer  the 
great  English  authority  and  teacher, experimented  extensively  with  the 
question-answer  method. He  considered  question-answer  work  to  be  “the 
most  effective  of  all  language  learning  exercise  ever  devised”.

Palmer  insisted,
however, that  if  this  technique  was  to  be  carried  out  successfully,
all  questions  asked  by  the  teacher  must  be  carefully  planned  and 
thought  out  beforehand. Questions  should  never  be  haphazard, either  in 
form  or  content. Specifically, H. Palmer  thought  that  any  question 
asked  by  the  teacher  should  be  of  a  nature  that  admits  the 
following:

a)   an  obvious  answer, not  an  answer 
that  requires  one  or  more  complicated  acts  of  judgement  on  the  part 
of  the  student;

b) an  easy  answer, not  one  that 
requires  the  use  of  word, facts, or  constructions  unknown  to  the 
student;

c) a relevant  answer, direct  answer 
involving  only  a  moderate  change  through  the  process  of  conversion,
substitution, or  completion  of  the  material  contained  in  the  teacher’s 
question.

In  H. Palmer’s  view,
there  are  three  stages  of  learning:

1.  
Receiving 
knowledge.

2.  
Fixing  it  in 
the  memory  by  repetition.

3.  
Using  the 
knowledge  by  real  practice.

H. Palmer  was  the 
author  of  some  50  theoretical  works, textbooks  and  manuals. Of  great 
interest  are  H. Palmer’s  “100  Substitution  Tables”, in  which  sentence 
patterns  are  arranged  in  tables  for  pupils  to  make  up  their 
sentences, following  the  pattern. His  main  findings  can  be  conveniently 
summarized  as  the  following  objectives:

1.   Phonetic, semantic  and  syntactic 
aspects.

2.   Oral  speech  by  way  of  speaking 
and  understanding.

3.   Accumulation  of passive  material 
with  subsequent  active  reproduction.

4.   Techniques  used  for  translation 
include  visuality, interpretation  and  verbal  context.

5.   Speech  patterns  to  be  learn  by 
heart.

6.   Rational  selection  of  vocabulary 
based  on  frequency  counts  and  utility.

7.   Topical  selection: minimum 
vocabulary  list  of  3000  words.

H. Palmer  paid  great 
attention  to  a  system  of  exercises, which  in  his  should  include:

1.   receptive –question  and  short 
answers  to  them;

2.   receptive-imitative –words  and 
word-combinations  repeated  after  the  teacher;

3.   conversational –questions, answers,
commands  and  completion  of  sentences.

Thus  H. Palmer  method 
is  based  on  rationalization  of  teaching/learning  process  and 
systematic  selection  of  material. Teaching  speaking  features  prominelity 
in  H. Palmer’s  method, hence  its  name  “oral  method”.

Direct 
Method

The  Direct  Method 
appeared  as  a  reaction  to  the  GTM  and  the  failure  to  procedure 
learns  who  could  use  the  foreign  language  they  had  been  studying.

The  Direct  Method  was 
based  on  the  belief  that  students  could  learn  a  language  through 
listening  to  it  and  that  they  learn  to  speak  by  speaking  it –
associating  speech  with  appropriate  action, like  the  way  the  children 
learn  native  tongue. The  Direct  Method    received  its  name  from  the 
fact  that  meaning  is  to  be  related  to  the  target  language  directly,
without  going  through  the  process  of  translating  into  the  student’s 
native  language.

The  various  “oral” 
and  “natural”  methods  which  developed  at  the  turn  of  the  century 
may  be  grouped   under  DM. The  students  learn  new  words  and  phrases 
from  objects. Actions  and  mime. When  the  meaning  of  words  could  not 
be  made  clear, the  teacher  would  resort  to  semantization  but  never 
to  native  language  translations. From  the  beginning, students  are 
accustomed  to  hearing  complete  meaningful  sentences  in  the  target 
language. Grammar  is  taught  at  a  later  stage  inductively, numerous 
examples  of  a  certain  principle  are  presented  and  the  rule  is  then 
inferred  from  these  examples. An  explicit  grammar  rule  may  never  be 
given.

Students  learn  to 
think  in  the  target  language  as  soon  as  possible. Vocabulary  is 
acquired  more  naturally  if  students  use  in  full  sentences, rather 
than  memorizing  long  lists  of  words. Vocabulary  is  emphasized  over 
grammar. Although  work  on  all  four  skills  occurs  from  the  start, oral 
communication  is  seen  as  basic. Thus  the  reading  and  writing  exercises 
are  based  upon  what  the  students  have  orally  practiced  first.
Pronunciation  also  receives  due  attention  from  the  beginning  of  the 
course. Desides  studying  every  speech  the  learns  also  do  history,
geography  and  culture  of   the  country  or  countries  where  the 
language  spoken.

The  teacher  who 
employs  DM  asks  the  students  to  self-correct  their   answers  by 
asking  them  to  make  a  choice  between  what  they  said  and  alternate 
answer  he  supplies. There  are, of  course, other  ways  of  getting 
students  to  self-correct. For  example, a  teacher  might  simply  repeat 
what  a  student  has  just  said  using  a  questioning  voice  to  signal 
to  the  student  that  something  was  wrong  with  it. Another  possibility 
is  for  teacher  to  repeat  what  the  student  said, stopping  just  before 
the  error. The  student  then  knows  that  the  next  word  was  wrong.
There  are  also  other  options  of  remedial  work.

The  main  principles  of 
DM  can  be  summarized  under  the  following  headings:

Techniques

1.   FL  used  throughout.

2.   Audio-visual  approach.

3.   Speech  before  reading.

4.   No  translation-meaning  conveyed 
through  visual/mime.

Objectives

1.   Fluency  in  speech.

2.   Capacity  to  think  in  target 
language.

3.   Meaningful  everyday  language.

4.   Grammar  to  be  include  from 
practice.

5.   Explanations  in  foreign  language.

Pros

1.   Lively  procedure  in  classroom.

2.   Correct  pronunciation.

3.   Absence  of  rule-giving.

4.   Learning  through  doing

Cons

1.   Plunges  learners  too  soon  into 
unstructured  situations.

2.   Foreign-Language  learner  not  like 
infant  native-language  learner.

3.   Dangers  of  including  wrong  rule.

4.   Tremendous  energy  needed  be 
teacher.

Audio-Lingual 
Method

The  Audio-Lingual 
Method  like  the  Direct  Method  we  have  just  examined, has  a  goal 
very  different  from  that  of  the  Grammar-Translation  Method. The 
Audio-Lingual  Method  was  developed  in  the  United  States  during  the 
Second  World  War. At  that  time  there  was  a  need  for  people  to 
learn  foreign  languages  rapidly  for  military  purposes. As  we  have 
seen  G-TM  did  not  prepare  people  to  use  the  target  language. While 
the  communication  in  the  target  language  was  the  goal  of  DM, there 
were  at  the  time  exciting  new  ideas  about  language  and  learning 
emanating  from  the  disciplines  of  descriptive  linguistics  and 
behavioural  psychology.

We  can  trace  the  Audio-Lingual 
Method  rather  directly  to  the  “scientific”  linguistics  of  Leonard 
Bloomfield  and  his  followers. Both  behaviouristic  psychology  and 
structural  linguistics  constituted  a  reaction  against  a  vague  and 
unscientific  approach  to  the  questions  of  human  behaviour. Including 
the  acquisition  of  knowledge.

Every  language, as  it 
is  viewed  here, has  its  own  unique  system. This  system  is  comprised 
of  several  different  levels: phonological, lexical, and  syntactical. Each 
level  has  its  own  distinctive  features.

Everyday  speech  is 
emphasized  in  the  Audio-Lingual  Method. The  level  of  complexity  of 
the  speech  is  graded  so  that  beginning  students  are  presented  with 
only  simple  forms.

The  structures  of  the 
language  are  emphasised  over  all  other  areas. The  syllabus  is 
typically  a  structural  one, with  the  structure  for  any  particular 
unit  include  in  the  new  dialogue. Vocabulary  is  also  contextualized 
within  the  dialogue. It  is  however, limited  since  the  emphasis  is 
placed  on  the  acquisition  of  the  patterns  of  the  language.

The  underlying 
provision  of  this  method  include  five  maxims  to  guide  teachers  in 
applying  the  result  of  linguistic  research  to  the  preparation  of 
teaching  materials  and  to  classroom  techniques:

8.    Language  is  speech, not  writing.

a)  
Emphasis  on 
correct  pronunciation  from  the  beginning;

b)
Listening  and 
speaking  before  reading  and  writing;

c) Realistic, situation  utterances 
from  start;

d)
Oral  mastery 
first; reading/writing  as  reinforcers; time  lag  will  depend  on  sitution.

9.   Language  is  a  set  of  habits.

a)  
Based  on  the 
assumption  that  language  learning  is  a  habit  formation  process,
pattern  drilling  and  dialogue  memorization  are  extensively  used;

a)  
Revolt  against 
the  grammar-translation  method;

b)
Grammar  for 
the  teacher  not  the  learner;

c)
Learn  through 
doing, through  active  practice

d)
Practice  first,
rules  induced  later.

11. A  language  is  what  its  native  speakers  say,
not  what  someone  thinks  they  ought  to  say:

a)  
Emphasis  on 
colloquial  wealth  of  language;

b)
Literary 
language  at  much  later  stage;

c)
Traditional 
grammar  mistrusted: functional  styles  (occupational, emotive, informative) 
studied  as  well  as  language  of  attitude.

12. Languages  are  different:

a)  
Universal  rules 
of  transformational  grammar  mistrusted;

b)
Contrastive 
studies  of  language  encouraged;

c)
Translation 
accepted  when  necessary  or  possible;

d)
Translation  a 
later  skill  with  its  own  techniques

Techniques:

1.   Situational  dialogues.

2.   Everyday  language.

3.   Emphasis  on  speaking – aural –
oral  active  participation.

4.   Mimicry-memorisation.

5.   Pattern-drilling-choral/individual –
Role  playing/Dialogue  building.

6.   Reading  and  writing  to  reinforce.

7.   Awareness  of  graphic  interference.

8.   Rules  to  be  induced  from 
practice.

A-LM  enables  the 
students  to  use  the  target  language  communicatively. In  order  to  do 
this  the  students  are  believed  to  overlearn  the   target  language. To 
learn  to  use  it  automatically  without  stopping  to  think. The  students 
achieve  this  by  forming  new  habits  in  the  target  language  and 
overcoming  the  old  habits  of  their  native  language.

The  teacher  is  like 
an  orchestral  leader, directing  and  controlling  the  language  behaviour 
of  the  students. He  is  also  responsible  for  providing  his  students 
with  a  good  model  of  imitation. The  students  are  imitators  of  the 
teacher’s  model  or  the  tapes  he  supplies  of  model  speakers. They 
follow  the  teacher’s  directions  and  respond  as  accurately  and   as 
rapidly  as  they  can.

New  vocabulary  and 
structures  are  presented  through  dialogues  and  texts. These  are  learnt 
through  imitation  and  repetition, transposition  are  based  upon  the  
patterns  in  the  dialogue  or  texts. Students  successful  responses  are 
positively  reinforced. Grammar  is  induced  from  the  example  given;
explict  grammar  rules  are  not  provided. Cultural  information  is 
contextualized  in  the  dialogues  and  texts  or  presented  by  the 
teacher. Students’  reading  and  writing  work  is  based  upon  the  oral 
work  they  did  earlier.

 Thus  the  main 
provisions   of  this  method  can  be  conveniently  summarized  in  the 
following  way:

 
Fluency  on 
four  skills  with  initial  emphasis  on  listening  and  speaking.

 
Formative 
function: understanding  culture  through  language.

Pros:

1.   Useful  language  learnt  from 
outset.

2.   Good  pronunciation  achieved 
through  sound  discrimination  and  auditory  practice.

3.   Materials  especially  devised  on 
contrastive  analysis  rather  than  total  structures –presentation  based 
on  frequency  counts  and  utility.

4.   Reading  and  writing  not 
neglected  but  postponed   to  serve  as  reinforcement.

5.   Highly  motivating: learner  senses 
achievement  from  beginning  through  practical  use  and  participation.

6.   A-LM  requires  and  encourages  use 
of  simple  and  mechanical  aids.

Cons:

1.   Lack  of  spontaneity  if  learning 
is  overmechanical.

2.   Reliance  on  inductive  process 
dangerous.

3.   Time  lag  between  oral  and 
written  work: dependence  on  ear  alone  can  lead  to  insecurity –
emotional  dislike  of  aural-oral  work  and  invention  of  graphic 
equivalents.

4.   A-LM  for  all  students? Average 
student  does  best, intelligent  student  border?

5.   Makes  considerable  demand  on  the 
teacher: preparation/drilling/imagination.

6.   Is  order  of  presentation  natural?

7.   Does  A-LM  produce  language 
illiterates –fluent  speakers  who  cannot  read  or  write?

Possible  remedies:

1.   Avoid  dull  drills –contextualize:
use  variety.

2.   Practice  should  be  meaningful 
and  point  of  drill  should  be  explained  to  the  learner  and 
understood.

3.   Time  lag  must  vary  according  to 
situation – in  some  cases  oral/written  work  side  be  side.

4.   Intelligent  students  should  be 
told  that  practice  makes  perfect – hence  importance  of  fluency, clarity 
and  precision.

5.   Order  of  presentation  probably 
logical  though  analogy  with  child  learner  not  relevant. Adult  is 
trained  to  think  and  use  books/dictionaries, but  without  first 
learning  how  to  pronounce  words  he  will  not  learn  how  to  read  well.

6.   Experience  showed  that  A-LM 
trainer  learner  did  better  is  all  skills  than  traditional  counterpart 
except  in  writing.

Though  the  emphases 
at  the  beginning  are  strongly  on  listening  and  speaking, no 
devaluation  of  literature  is  implied. It  appears  that  mastery  of 
sound  system  of  a  language  is  essential  for  efficient  reading  and 
for  appreciation  of  literature. One  of  the  qualities  that  makes  a 
work  of  literature  great  is  the  choice  of  words  and  phrases, and 
one  of  the  factors  that  governs  this  choice  is  how  they  sound. “To 
read  a  work  of  literature  without  any  idea  of  what  it  sounded  like 
to  the  writer  is  to  be  as  handicapped  as  the  tone-deaf  listening 
to  music  or  the  colour-blind  looking  at  a  painting”.

Losanov’s 
Method  or  Suggestive  Method

Few  methods  have  been 
met  with  claims  ranging  from  sensational  to  skeptical: mysterious  and 
costly, a  highly  questionable  new  gimmick  (one  critic  has  unkindly 
called  it  “a  package  of  pseudo-scientific  gobbledygook”)  and  far 
remote  from  language  teaching  styles  as  language  sleep  learning,
medative  relaxation, electrical  and  sound  impulses (E. Davydova).

Suggestopedia  as  G.
Lozanov  called  his  pedagogical  application  of  :The  Science  of 
Suggestology”  aims  at  neutralizing  learning  inibitions  and 
de-suggesting  false  limitations  that  cultural  norms  impose  on  learning.

The  suggestive  method  or 
Suggestopedia  is  a  modification  of  direct  method. The originator
of this method believes, as does Silent Way’s Caleb Gattegno, that language
learning can occur at a much faster rate than what ordinarily transpires. In G.
Losanov’s view the reason for the pupils  inefficiency is that they set up
psychological barriers that block the way to learning. They fear that they will
be unable to perform, that they will be limited in the ability to learn, and
finally fail. One result is that the learners’ full mental powers are not
engaged. According to G. Losanov and his proponents, only five per cent of the
learners’ mental capacity is used. In order to make better use of the mental
reserves the limitations, which they think we have, need to be
"desuggested". Suggestopedia, the application of the study of
suggestion to pedagogy, has been developed to help students eliminate the
feeling that they cannot be successful and, thereby, to help them overcome the
barriers to learning.

The  behaviourist 
principles of G. Losanov’s method assume the form of five maxims:

1. Get the learners to
utter the same structure repeatedly.

2. Get them to do so
correctly.                               

3. Do this through good
grading of structures by arranging them in order of difficulty and by
introducing them one at a time if possible.  

4. The behaviourist
approach is repetition and drilling to the point where the learner
automatically makes the correct response.

5. Lessons must be
designed so as to prevent the learners from making mistakes.

Behaviourist psychology
described all learning (including language acquisition) as a matter of
conditioning — as the formation of habits through responses to outside stimuli.
Thus one learns a language through mimicry, memorisation and analogy .

Communication takes place
on "two planes": on linguistic and psychological one. On the
linguistic plane the message is encoded; and on the psychological are factors
which influence the linguistic message. On the conscious plane, the learner
attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the music suggests that
learning is easy and pleasant; when there is a unity between conscious and
subconscious, learning is enhanced .

The class, where this
method is used, is different from other classrooms    — the students are seated
in cushioned armchairs that are arranged in a semicircle facing the front of
the room. The teacher is lively, dynamic, confidant, yet sensitive, and speaks
only the target language, which suggests that the learners do the same.
In the firsts three-hour meeting all learners choose a new name and
nationality, after which they are given a fictional autobiography. By means of
song, imitation, and play, the learners introduce themselves to each other and
assume their new roles. Then over the next two days, the teacher twice presents
a long script, each time with a different aim and a different learning set-up;
these script performances called "concert sessions", are accompanied
by music. In the first of these, the "active concert session", the
music is emotional, and the tone of the artistic presentation reflects the
character of the music. The learners have the script in two languages arranged
in short phrases on opposite sides of  the page. After  the "concert
session" come various kinds of elaboration activities, including group and
choral reading of parts of the scripts, singing and playing games as a group
and individually. The second day the script is performed again, this time in a
"pseudopassive concert session” where a state of wakeful relaxation is
artfully stimulated. This reading is accompanied by music of a different tone
and mood, generally barouque style. Following that, the learners (in their new
identities) are aided again in elaborating the script in various ways. This may
include narrating a story or event, or creating an original story, using the
language in the script .

Gradually
the selection of vocabulary becomes more elaborate. It may
include situations from literary works, rustic scenes, and facts from everyday
life. Using pantomime to help the students understand, the teacher acts out
various occupations, such as pilot, singer, carpenter and artist. The students
choose what they want to be.

The
teacher reads a dialogue partly in English and partly through pantomime, and
outlines the dialogue’s story. He also calls his students attention to some of
the comments regarding vocabulary and grammar structures.

Next,
the teacher asks the students to read the dialogue in a sad way, in an angry
way and finally in an amorous way. This is followed by asking questions about
the dialogues. Sometimes he asks the students to repeat an English line after
him; still other times he addresses a question from the dialogue to an
individual student.

So, the principles and
techniques of Suggestopedia can be  conveniently  summarized  under  the 
following  headings:

1.   classroom  set-up;

2.   positive  suggestion;

3.   visualization;

4.   choosing  a  new  indentity;

5.   role-play;

6.   concert;

7.   primary  activation  (the  students 
playfully  re-read  the  dialogue);

8.   secondary  activation  (the 
students  engage  in  various  activities  designed  to  help  them  learn 
the  new  material  and  use  it  spontaneously).

Activities  particularly 
recommended  for  this  phase  include  singing, dancing, dramatisations,
games. The  important  thing  is  that  the  activities  are  varied  and 
don’t  allow  the  students  to  focus  on  the  form  of  the  linguistic 
message, just  the  communicative  intent.

And  finally,
instruction  is  designed  so  as  to  tap  more  successfully  the  learning 
powers  of  the  mind  and  eliminate  psychological  barriers  that  block 
learning  and  inhibit  production. The  lessons  are  pleasant, interesting,
and  nonthreatening;  the  teacher  gives  lots  of  encouragement, and 
similar  admonitions.

Eclectic
Method                  

Having
come to the realisation that each learner possesses distinct:

cognitive and personality traits, it
follows that one teaching methodology will not be the most appropriate for all
students. The recent tendency has therefore been towards eclecticism, selecting
materials and techniques from  various
sources.                                                  

This obviously puts a
much larger responsibility on the teacher,  for now he should be familiar with
a much wider range of materials, exercises and activities than before. It is no
longer a matter of picking up the textbook  and following it page by
page.                                      

Depending on the content
and difficulty of the subject matter, the learner would apply one or more of
these different types of learning in a given situation. Evidently, if the
teacher is to be aware of this multiple  individual cognitive and personality
factors and be able diagnose and  utilise them to the fullest, he must have
more than a passing knowledge of the recent investigation in all related
sciences. But the problem lies not only in lies amount of information to be
mastered but in the organization and application of that knowledge to a
practical situation.

An eclecticist  tries to
absorb the best techniques of all well-known language-teaching methods into his
classroom procedures and seeks the balaced development of all four skills at
all stages while retaining emphasis on an
oral presentation first. He adopts his methods to the changing
objectives of the day and to the types of students who pass through his
classroom. The eclectic teacher is imaginative, energetic, resourceful, and
willing to experiment. His lessons are varied and interesting.

Techniques

1. Some grammatical
explanations in native language.     

2. Translation as
short-cut to conveying meaning.

3. Balanced development
of four skills at all stages with  emphasis an  aural-oral 
procedures.                   .

4. Adjustments according
to needs of class and personalities of  teachers.

Communicative Method of FLT

A comparative study of
methods and approaches in TEFL/TESL has shown that the past methodologies seem
to have pursued too narrow objectives. A flexible uniform language-teaching
strategy should be based on a careful selection of facets of various methods
and their integration into a cohesive, coherent working procedure which will
suit the realities of the particular teaching situation. It is assumed that the
goal of language leaching is the learner’s ability to communicate in target language.
It is assumed that the content of a language course will include linguistic
structures, semantic notions, and social functions. Students regularly work in
groups or pairs to transfer meaning in situations where one student has
information that the others lack. Students often engage in role-play or
dramatizations to adjust their use of the target language to different social
contexts. Classroom materials and activities are often authentic to reflect
real-life situations and demands. Skills are integrated from the beginning: a 
given activity might involve reading, speaking, listening and perhaps also
writing. The teacher’s role is primarily to facilitate communication and only
secondarily to correct errors. The teacher should be able to use the target language
fluently and appropriately. Written activities should be used sparingly with
younger children. Children of six or seven years old are often not yet
proficient in mechanics of writing in their own language.

In methodological
literature of the last two decades the word "communicative" is the
most frequently used one. Communicative method (sometimes referred to as
approach) grew out of the works of anthropological linguists who view language
first and foremost as the system of communication .This method stresses the
need to teach communicative competence as opposed to the linguistic competence:
thus functions are emphasized over form. The long and complex history of
communicative competence and the importance of the relation between ideas about
the nature of language and their social, intellectual and cultural contexts
have become a major concern not only for methodologists, linguists, but also
for psychologists and social theorists.

Communicative theory
enables learners to realize that every speech act takes place in a specific
social situation. Psychological factors (the learners’ age, sex, complement of
the group, pupil’s personality, their roles, etc.) as well as linguistic factors
(a topic of discussion, type of discourse; a colloquial, informal or formal
variety of English (also known as register) play a crucial role here. In other
words appropriateness and accessibility of speech in the particular social
situation are as equally important as accuracy of pronunciation and grammar.

Communicative competence
is the ability of learners to use the language appropriately for the given
socio-cultural context. To do this the learners should be able to manage the
process of negotiating meaning with the teacher and among themselves.

Communicative competence
is not a compilation of items, but a set of strategies or creative procedures
for realizing the value of linguistic elements in contextual use, an ability to
make sense as a participant of spoken or written discourse by shared knowledge
of code resources and rules of language use .

The content of
communicative instruction is based on the concept that the process of
instruction and the model of  communication. 

All this does not
necessarily mean that the process of instruction is the exact replica of the
process of communication. When we communicate, we use the language to
accomplish some function, such as persuading, arguing, agreeing, disagreeing or
promising. Moreover, we carry out these functions within an appropriate social
context. A speaker will choose a peculiar way to express his argument according
to his intent, his level of emotion, and what his relationships with the
collocutor are. For example, he may be more direct in arguing with
his friend than with his senior.

Furthermore, since
communication is a process, it is insufficient for learners to simply have
knowledge of target language forms, meanings, and functions. Students must be
able to apply this knowledge in negotiating  meaning. It is through the
interaction between speaker and listener (or reader and writer) that meaning
becomes clear, the listener gives the speaker feedback as to whether or not he
understood what the speaker has said. In this way the speaker can revise what
he has said and try to communicate Ins intended meaning again, if necessary.

In  communication, the
speaker has a choice of what he will say and how he will say. If the exercise
is tightly controlled so that the pupils can only say something in one way, the
speaker has no choice and the exchange, therefore, is not communicative. In a
chain drill, for example, a student must answer his collocutor’s question. In
the same way he replied lo someone else’s question. Therefore, the student has
no choice of form  and content and quasi-communication occurs.

True
communication is purposeful. The speaker can thus evaluate whether his intent,
based upon the information he receives from the listener, has been achieved. If
the listener does not have an opportunity to provide the speaker with such
feedback, then the exchange is not really  communicative.

Communication has parameters which
are difficult to prognose,  there are no certain guidelines to govern this
interactive process. To model communication means to establish basic
constraints, its underlying  principles which include:

1.   individual approach;

2.   functional approach (stresses the
context rather than the very  structure of language);

3.   communication-oriented activity;

4.   personal  involvement;

5.   situational  approach;

6.   novelty;

7.   heuristics.

The
teacher’s role is to have his students to become communicatively competent. To
do this students need knowledge of the linguistic forms, meanings, and
functions. They need to be reminded that the said categories are in dialectical
unity and many different forms can be used to perform a function, as well as a
single form can often serve a variety of functions. They must be able to choose
from these forms the most appropriate one, given the socio-cultural context and
the roles of the interlocutors.

The teacher’s
role is to facilitate the teaching/learning process, to establish situations
which will promote communication. During the activities he acts as an advisor,
answering his students questions and monitoring their performance. At other
times he might be a "co-communicator" — engaging in the communicative
activity along with the Students .

Since the
teacher’s role is less dominant than in a teacher-centered method, (DM, A-LM,
CC-LT, etc.) students are seen as more responsible managers of their own
learning.

        The
most obvious characteristics of the communicative method is that almost
everything that is done is done with a communicative purpose. Students use the
language a great deal through communicative activities such as games,
role-plays, and problem-solving tasks.

Activities are truly communicative
according to Johnson K. and Marrow K., they cover three features; information
gap, choice, and feedback. Another characteristic feature of CM is the use of
authentic materials. It is considered desirable to give students an opportunity
to develop

strategies for understanding language
as it is actually used by native speakers.

Finally, such activities
are carried out by students in small groups. Small numbers of students
interacting are favored in order to maximize the time allotted to each student
for learning to negotiate meaning.

The teacher is the
initiator of the activities, but he does not always interact with the students.
Sometimes he is a co-communicator, but oftener he establishes real-life
situations that prompt communication between and among the students. The
students interact a great deal with one another. They do this in various
configurations: pairs, triads, small groups, and the  whole class.

One of the basic
assumptions of CM is that students will be more  motivated to study a FL since
they will feel to do something useful with the  language they study.

The
teachers give students an opportunity to express their individuality by having
them share their ideas and opinions on a regular basis. This helps students
"to integrate the foreign language with their own personality and thus to
feel more emotionally secure with it" .

Learners’
mistakes should not be constantly corrected but regarded with greater
tolerance, as a completely normal phenomenon in the development of
communicative skills. In short, communicative method leaves the learner scope
to contribute his own personality to the learning process. It also provides the
teacher with scope to step out of his didactic role in order to be a
"human among humans" .

Finally,
students’ security is enhanced by many opportunities for cooperative
interaction with their fellow students and the teacher.

Culture
is the everyday lifestyle of people who are native speakers of the language.
There are certain aspects of it that are especially important to communication
-the use of non-verbal behaviour, which receives greater  attention in CM.

Students work on all four
skills from the beginning. The target  language should be used not only during
communicative activities, but also, for example, in explaining the activities
to the students or in assigning homework. The students learn from these
classroom management exchanges, and realise that the target language is a 
means and vehicle of communication,  not just a subject to be studied.         

The teacher supervises
his students’ performance at every stage of their work. He evaluates not only
their accuracy, but their fluency and prosody as well. The student who has the
most control of the structures and vocabulary is not always the best
communicator. For more formal evaluation, a teacher is recommended to use a
communicative test. This is an integrative test which has a real communicative
function.

The  teacher  also 
assumes  an  integrated  approach  to  students’  errors.  Errors  of  form 
are  tolerated  and  are  seen  as  a  natural  outcome  of  the  development 
of  communication  skills. Some  students  can  have  limited  linguistic 
knowledge  and  still  be  successful  communicators.

To  substantiatiate  and 
implement  CM  into  practice  means  to  go  beyond  its  general 
description. It  is  important  to  take  into  account  all  methodological 
functions  of  these  underlying  principles, their  content, and  see  what 
results  could  be  anticipated  in  all  four  skills  of  activity.

Thus  communicative 
competence  entails  not  solely  grammatical   accuracy  but  knowledge  of 
socio-cultural  rules  of  appropriateness, discourse  norms – the  ability 
to  sustain  coherent  discourse  with  another  speaker, and  strategies  for 
ensuring  remedial  work  for  potential  breakdown  in  communications.

Emphasis  is  placed  on 
developing  motivation  to  learn  through  establishing  meaningful,
purposeful, coherent  discourses  in  the  target  language. Individuality  is 
encouraged, as  well  as  cooperation  with  peers. Who  contribute  to  a 
sense  of  achievement  and  emotional  security  with  the  target 
language.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplement 3.

 The Seven Intelligences

Intelligence End-States Core Components

Logical- Scientist Sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical or
mathematical Mathematician numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of
reasoning.

Linguistic Poet Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings Journalist of
words; sensitivity to different functions of language.

Musical Composer Abilities to produce and appreciate rhythm,
Violinist pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of
musical expressiveness.

Spatial Navigator Capacities to perceive the visual-spatial world
Sculptor accurately and to perform transformations on
one’s initial perceptions.

Bodily- Dancer Abilities to control one’s body movements and
kinesthetic Athlete to handle objects skillfully.

Interpersonal Therapist Capacities to discern and respond appropriately
Salesman to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and
desires of other people.

Intrapersonal Person with Access to one’s own feelings and the ability to
detailed, discriminate among them and draw upon them
accurate self- to guide behavior; knowledge of one’s own
knowledge strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplement 4.

Example of a
conversation lesson:

1. Preparation. Show the learners a picture of
two people conversing in a familiar casual setting. (The setting will be
determined by a prior needs assessment.) Ask them to brainstorm what the
people might be discussing (i.e., what topics, vocabulary, typical phrases).

2. Presentation. Present several video clips of
small talk in casual situations. Have learners complete a worksheet in which
they describe or list the topics discussed, the context in which the speech
is occurring, and any phrases that seem to typify small talk. Follow up with
a discussion of the kinds of topics that are appropriate for small talk, the
factors in the specific situations that affect topic selection (e.g.,
relationships of participants, physical setting), and typical phrases used in
small talk. Chart this information.

3. Practice. Give learners specific information
about the participants and the setting of a scenario where small talk will
take place. In pairs, have them list topics that might be discussed by the
participants and simple phrases they might use. Learners then engage in
improvised dialogues based on these simple phrases.

4. Evaluation. Give pairs a teacher-prepared dialogue
based on their scenario from š. Ask them to compare their improvised
dialogues with the prepared dialogue, analyzing the similarities,
differences, and reasons for both.

5. Extension. Have learners go individually or in
small groups into various contexts in the community (work, school, church,
bus stop) and record the conversations they hear. Ask them to report their
findings back to the class, and then have the class discuss these findings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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