How to make career in hotel business

How to make career in hotel business

Министерство  образования Российской Федерации

Южный институт менеджмента

Кафедра иностранных языков

Реферат

На тему:
How to make career in hotel industry.

 

 

МГТБ

Выполнила студентка, 2 курс

Гр.01-МТ1 

Косова Тамара

 

Руководитель:
Хохлова Лариса

Николаевна

Краснодар 2003

                                                  
Plan

I.
Introduction

II.  
The hotel complex as an
object of the management

1.
The main services of
the hotel.

2.
Classification of the
hotels.

3.
The peculiarites of the
hotel service.

III.
The structure of the
management in the lodging industry.

IV.  
The main methods of the
management of the hospitality business.

V.
The manager’s role in
the lodging industry. Manager’s functions and operations.

VI.  
Decision-making – key
of manager career.

VII.
The role of the
communication in the manager’s career.

VIII.  
The management of time.

X.
Conclusion.

I. Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations, such
as companies, government, departments, unions, hospitals, schools and the like.
They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard of living
and our quality of life. In all these organizations, there are people carrying
out the work of a manager. The role of the manager is particularly significant
in such social sphere as the lodging industry.

   The lodging industry is the most important element of the
social sphere. It plays the leading part in the increase of the public
production and accordingly in the uplifting of living standards.

II.  One can designate the hotel as an enterprise rendering
service to the people, which are out of doors. The service of the placing and
the nourishment is the leading one at the hotel.

1)  The hotel apartments are the basic element of the placing
service. They are intended for the rest, sleeping and work of the guests. In
additional the placing service includes the service, which is done by the
personal of the hotel. These are reception and official registration of the
guests, cleaning the rooms and others.

The nourishment consists of different processes:

·  
process of production (preparation of
dishes),

·  
trade process (sale of the food
products),

·  
service process  (service of the guests
by the waiters at the restaurant, in the rooms).

The additional service includes swimming-pools, conference
halls, hair-dresser’s, massage-room and many other things. The hotel is
distinguished by the additional service among other hotels.

Therefore this service is very important by the forming of
the attractiveness of the hotel.

Among the main services of the hotel one can also
distinguish the reserving the place, the facilities, the receiving and the
service of the exploitation of the apartment fund.

2) The service of the nourishment, the placing service and
the additional service are formed different at the hotels. And so one can
designate several types of the hotels.

  The first class hotels are usually situated in the
center of the city. The skilled staff ensures the high level of the service.
The clients of this kind of the hotel are businessmen, participants of the
conferences and other rich men.

The health-resort hotel is situated in the
health-resort country. It includes the medical service and the dietary
nourishment.

The motel is located near the motor roads and in the
suburbs. The clients of the motel are tourists, particularly motor tourers.

The middle class hotels render the broad service. The
prizes depend on the situation of the hotel. The leading types of the hotels
are the business and health-resort ones, because 50% of the journeys are made
with business purpose, and holiday are treatment purpose determines 40% of the
journeys. 

   The hotels are classified by the level of the comfort,
the capacity of the hotel, the purpose of the hotel, the situation of the
hotel, the duration of the work, the providing with the nourishment, the
duration of the stay at the hotel, the level of the prices.

3) The peculiarities of the hotel service are:

1)
The processes of the production and the
consumption are not synchronous. This means that several kinds of service do
not connect with the presence of the client (cleaning the rooms).

2)
Limited possibility of the keeping.

3)
Urgency of the service. The problem
concerning the service must be solved very quickly. The urgency and the
situation of the hotel are the most important factors by the choice of the
hotel.

4)
The broad participation of the staff in
the production process. Personal service cannot be mechanized or automated.
Some technologies are being instituted to speed up routine tasks, but the human
element is the determining one of the hospitality business. Therefore the
problem of the standardization is significant in the lodging industry. The
standards of the service are worked out at many hotels. They are the rules of
the service, which guarantee the level of quality of all operations. These   
are the time of the official registration, the knowledge of foreign languages
and the out-word appearance of the personal. The work at the hotel brings the
employee into contact with people from all walks of life. Guests will include
the wealthy and the poor, engaging and obnoxious. Each guest offers the
employee an opportunity learns more about human nature. Employees not only have
direct responsibility for guest service, the also have the benefit of
witnessing the guest’s satisfaction. The managers generally need more hands-on
experience before assuming managerial positions. The skills of understanding,
motivation and directing people can best be developed through experience.

6)
Interdependency between the hotel
service and the purpose of the traveling.

III. The structure of the management in the lodging industry
consists of administrative secnating.

In the lodging industry there are three types
of the structure:

1) Lineal structure. Every section has
the manager who is responcible for the activities of this section. This manager
submits to the higher manager. The advantages of this structure are the clear
responsibility, the simplicity of the management. But the manager must be very
skilled to manage all processes. Besides that there are too many contacts with
the subordinamper the work of the manager.

2) The functional structure. The
main idea is that the specialists perform the separate functions and they are
united in departments. The advantages of the functional structure are the high
competence of the specialists, standardization and the programming of the
processes. The main problem of this structure is the excessive centralization.

3) Lineal-functional. It includes the
special sections by the lineal managers. Among the advantages one can account
the co-operation of the experts and the better preparation of the decisions and
plans. The defects of this structure are the unclear responsibility and the
absence of the connections between departments.

   In addition to the usual management
positions, multi-unit companies may have area, district, and regional and/or
corporate-level management. There may be several separate departments operating
at a hotel, requiring frequent communication among staff members to co-ordinate
their activities.

  The administrative structure of the hotel
depends on its purpose, capacity and the specific character of the guests.

IV. Among the main methods of the management in the lodging
industry we can number economic, administrative and social psychological
methods
.

The leading idea of the economic method is to
make such kind of the conditions to the staff, in which it can take into account
at most the consequences of its administrative and production activities.

 The administrative method is based on the
directive instructions. The main purpose of the social-psychological method is
the forming of the positive climate in the collective. The success of the
activities of the manager depends in the main on his ability to work with
people and on right using all these methods.

V.  A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in 1916 a
classic definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is “to
forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.” This
definition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers on
management have modified Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about
“command”, they say a manager must “motivate” or “direct” and “lead” other
workers.

     Henri Fayol’s definition of a manager’s
functions is useful. However, in most companies, the activities of a manager
depend on the level at which he/she is working. Top managers, such as
directors, will be more involved in long planning, policy making and the
relations of the company. These strategy decisions are part of the planning
function mentioned by Fayol.

  One the other hand, middle management is
help an organization to run efficiently. It is urgent order or sorting out a
technical problem. Managers at this level spend a great deal of time
communicating, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation
of their organization.

   Managers in the lodging industry perform five
basic operations
.

·  
Firstly, managers set objectives. They
decide what these should be and how the organization can achieve them. For this
task they need analytical ability.

·  
Secondly, managers organize. They must
decide how the resources of the company are to be used, how the work is to be
classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select people for the jobs to be
done. For this, they not only need analytical ability but also understanding of
human beings.

·  
The third task is to motivate and
communicate effectively. They must be able to get people to work as a team, and
to be as productive as possible.

To do this, they will be communicating effectively with all
levels of the

organization – their superiors, colleagues and subordinates.
To succeed in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity is
measurement. Having set standards, managers have to measure the performance of
the organization and of its staff in relation to those standards. Measuring
requires analytical ability. Finally, managers develop people more productive
and to grow as human beings. They make them bigger and richer persons.

  Some decisions are of the routine kind. They
are decisions which are made quickly. Because a manager is experienced, he
knows what to do in certain situations. He does not have to think too much
before taking action.

  Other decisions are often intuitive ones.
They are not really rational. The manager may have a gut feeling that a certain
course of action is the right one.

   Many decisions are more difficult to make
since they involve problem-solving. Very often they are strategic decisions which
will affect the future direction of the enterprise. To make good decisions the
manager should be able to select rationally a course of action. In practice,
decisions are usually made in circumstances which are not ideal. They must be
made quickly, with insufficient information. It is probably rare that a manager
can make an entirely rational decision.

  When a complex problem arises, the manager
has to collect facts and weigh up courses of action. He must be systematic in
dealing with the problem. A useful approach to this sort of decision-making is
as follows: the process consists of four phases:

a)
Defining the problem;

b)  
Analyzing and collecting information;

c)
Working out options;

d)  
Deciding on the best solution.

 As a first step, the manager must identify
and define the problem. And it is important that he does not mistake the
symptoms of a problem for the real problem he must solve. At this early stage
the manager must also take into account the rules and principles of the company
which may affect the final decision. These factors will limit the solution of
the problem.

  The second step is to analyze the problem
and decide what additional information is necessary before a decision can be
taken. Getting the facts is essential in decision-making. However, as already mentioned,
the manager will rarely have all the knowledge he needs. This is one reason why
making decisions involves a degree of risk. It is the manager’s job to minimize
that risk.

  Once the problem has been defined and the
facts collected, the manager should consider the options for solving it. This
is necessary because there are usually several ways of solving a problem. The enterprise
might be modernized or service might be improved, for example.

  Before making a decision, the manager will
carefully access the options, considering the advantages and disadvantages of
each one. Having done this, he will have to take a decision.  Perhaps he will
compromise using more than the option.

VII. Communications in excellent companies are different from
those in other companies. Excellent companies have “open communications”.
People working in them keep in contact with each other regularly. The companies
do everything possible to ensure that staff meets easily and frequently.

  One problem with communication is that we do
not, in fact, communicative as effectively as we think we do. This is important
for managers. It suggests that, when giving instructions, managers must make
sure that those instructions have been understood and interpreted correctly.

  A breakdown in communications is to happen
if there are some kinds of social distance between people. In organizations
people may have difficulty communicating if they are different in status, or if
one person has a much higher position than the other. It is risky to tell the
truth to someone higher up in the hierarchy – they may not like what they hear
and hold it against you. For this reason staffs often “filter” information.

One way of reducing social distance – and
improving communications – is to cut down on status symbols. It is possible,
for example, to have a common dining-room for all staff.

  Physical surroundings and physical distance
limit or encourage communication. The physical layout of an office must be
carefully planned.

  Another important barrier to communication
is selective perception. This means that people perceive things in different
ways. The world of the sender is not the same as the world of the receiver. A
manager will say something but the employee will interpret his meaning
incorrectly.

Communication problems will arise, from time
to time, in the best-run companies. However, to minimize such problems,
managers must remember one thing. Communication should be a two-way process.
Managers should encourage staff to ask questions and to react to what the
managers are saying. The most useful question a manager can ask is “Did you
understand that?”

VIII. In the lodging industry it is important that managers
should be effective. They must be able to achieve their objectives. The problem
is that there are so many pressures on managers, reducing their efficiency. The
managers find that they do not have enough time to devote to the really
important jobs. They find that other people take up a lot of their time, so
that they have little time of their own.

Before being able to control his time, the
manager must find out how he is actually using it. He must know where it goes.
The best way to do this is to record how he uses time. One way of logging time
is to note down all the activities and indicate how long they took. The manager
can ask questions such as:  Are some of the things I am doing wasting time?
Should I be spending more time on certain activities? Knowing how to spend time
is an essential skill of a manager.

IX. People entering the lodging industry frequently wonders
whether it is better to begin their careers in a small or large hotel. What branch
of hotel operation is the best to start in after graduation? Where you start is
probably less important than how well you work and whether you make the most of
opportunities. It is important to learn something about all phases of hotel
operation. You may prefer to work first in those departments you know least
about. Then with some exposure to all areas, you can begin to focus on your
areas of interest.

X. We must not forget that the successful managers are
necessarily people who set high standards. Good managers need not be geniuses,
but must bring “character” to the job. They are people of integrity, who will
look for that quality in others.

   Questions:

1)
Is the lodging industry the most
important element of the social sphere?

2)
Must the manager bring “character” to
the job?

3)
Why is the hotel distinguished by the
additional service among other hotels?

4)
What main methods of the management can
we number in the lodging industry?

5)
Is the administrative method based on
the directive instructions or is the economic one?

6)
What kind of operations do managers
perform in the hospitality business?

7)
How must the manager use his time?

8)
Why do the communication play the main
role in the manager’s career?

9)
Is the decision-making the key of the
manager’s career?

10)How can
one start his manager’s career? 

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