An English Speaking Country — New Zealand
ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ ДЛЯ ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ
Реферат по английскому языку
"An English Speaking Country"
Факультета управления и психологии
проверила ст.преподаватель Т.В. Оберемко
Geography Location 3
Flora and Fauna 3
Government and Politics 3
Population and People 4
Newspapers and Magazines 5
Radio and TV 5
Maori Arts 6
New Zealand stretches 1600 km from north to south
it consists of two large islands around which are scattered a number of
smaller islands, plus a few far-flung islands hundreds of km away. New
Zealand’s territorial jurisdiction extends to the islands of Chatham, Kermadec,
Tokelau, Auckland, Antipodes, Snares, Solander and Bounty (most of them uninhabited)
and to the Ross Dependency in Antarctica.
A notable feature of New Zealand’s geography is the
country’s great number of rivers. There’s a lot of rainfall In New Zealand and
all that rain has to go somewhere. The Waikato River in the North Island is New
Zealand’s longest river, measuring in at 425 km. Also in the North Island, the
Whanganui River is the country’s longest navigable river, which has made it an
important water-way from historic times down to the present. New Zealand also
has a number of beautiful lakes; Lake Taupo is the largest and lakes
Waikaremoana and Wanaka are two of the most beautiful.
Flora and Fauna
As is the case for most Pacific islands, New Zealand’s native flora &
fauna are, for the most part, not found anywhere else in the world. And, like
other Pacific islands, NZ’s native ecosystem has been dramatically affected and
changed by plants and animals brought by settlers, mostly in the last 200
years. Wild pigs, goats, possums, wallabies, rabbits, dogs, cats and deer have
all made their mark on the native’ wildlife, and blackberries, gorse, broom and
agricultural weeds have infested huge areas of land.
New Zealand is believed to be a
fragment of the ancient southern continent of Gondwanaland which became detached
over 100 million years ago allowing many ancient plants and animals to survive
and evolve in isolation. As a result, most of the NZ flora & fauna is
indigenous/endemic. It has the worlds largest flightless parrot (kakapo), the
only truly alpine parrot (kea), the oldest reptile (tuatara), some of the
biggest earthworms, the smallest bats, so me of the oldest trees, and many of
the rarest birds, insects, and plants in the world. The first Maoris brought
some rats and the now extinct Maori dog (kuri) with them but the only
indigenous mammals at that time were bats.
Much of New Zealand’s unique
flora & fauna has survived, but today over 150 native plants -10% of the
total number of native species — and many native birds are threatened with
Government and Politics
The governmental structure of New Zealand is modeled on
the British parliamentary system, elections being based on universal adult
suffrage. The minimum voting age is 18 and candidates are elected by secret
ballot. The maximum period
between elections is three years, but the interval can
be shorter for various reasons, and the government of the
day can call an early election. Voting is not compulsory, although on average
more than 80% of those eligible to vote do so.
The difference between the UK’s
Westminster system and the NZ model is that New Zealand has abolished the upper
house and governs solely through the lower house. Known as the House of Representatives,
it has 120 member’s seats. The government runs on a party system. The party
that wins a majority of seats in an election automatically becomes the
government and its leader. The prime minister. The two main parties are the
National (conservative) and Labor parties.
Like the UK, New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. The
traditional head of state, the reigning British king or queen, is represented
by a resident governor-general, who is appointed for a five-year term. An
independent judiciary makes up another tier of government.
The two-party system has traditionally made it
difficult for other parties to gain much power. Nevertheless, in the 1993
election the Alliance party, composed of the Greens and other groups including
Labor groups and former National Party MPs, gained 18% of the vote. Election
1993 were so close that the National Party was
only voted in by a majority of one seat, ahead of the Labour Party, and the
smaller Alliance and NZ First parties, which both had two seats.
After a referendum in 1993 to assess the public’s
ideas on a number of electoral reforms, New Zealanders voted overwhelmingly for
proportional representation. The government has introduced the MMP (Mixed
Member Proportional) electoral system, which is a limited form of proportional
voting based on the German electoral system.
Under MMP, electors have two votes: an electorate
vote and a party vote. Of the 120 parliamentary seats, 60 are general
electorates, where the candidate who receives the most electorate votes in an
electorate is voted in direct1y as the member of parliament. A further five MPs
represent five Maori electorates, chosen by Maori voters using their electorate
votes. The remaining 55 ‘list’ seats are allocated according to the percentage
of the party vote received from a list of candidates nominated by political
parties. A party must have at least 5% of the party vote or win an electorate
seat to get its allocation of proportional list seats
It remains to be seen how the new
system will affect the existing political power base. The big winners from the
changes are the largest minor parties, such as the Alliance, but small parties
will still have difficulty gaining seats. The two main parties will continue to
dominate parliament, but majority governments may become a thing of the past.
The New Zealand and Australian flags are very much
alike. With the British flag in the top left-hand corner, the New Zealanders
show the stars of the Southern Cross in red on a blue field.
Population and People
New Zealand’s population of
around 3,5 million is comprised
of 78.3% New Zealand Pakeha, 13% New Zealand Maori and 5%
Pacific Island Polynesian, while 1.3% are Chinese, 0.9% are Indian and 1.5% are
‘Other’. Europeans are the only group declining, percentage-wise, while Maori,
Polynesian, Chinese, Indian and ‘Other’ peoples are on the rise.
Many of the islands of the
Pacific are currently experiencing a rapid population shift from remote and
undeveloped islands to the ‘big city’ and Auckland is very much the big city
of the South Pacific, with the greatest concentration of Polynesians on earth.
It sometimes causes a great deal of argument, discussion and tension and much
of it is not between the recent Pacific immigrants and the Pakeha population
but between the islanders and the Maori, or among the various island groups
Asian migration is also
increasing. As well as a sizeable Indian community, mostly from Fiji, New
Zealand has been attracting migrants from East Asia, many of whom have migrated
under New Zealand’s recent immigration incentives to attract skilled people
and especially finance to the country. Over the last 15 years or so the
economic situation has led to a mass exodus to Australia and further a field,
though improving economic conditions has seen a slowing of emigration.
With only about 12.6 people
per sq km, New Zealand is lightly· populated by many countries’ standards but
it is much more densely populated than Australia with its stretches of empty
country and 2.2 persons per sq km. The South Island once had a greater
population than the North Island but now the South Island is the place to go
for elbow room-the entire population of the South Island is barely more than
that of Auckland. The nation’s capital is Wellington but Auckland is the
largest city. Altogether the population of the 15 largest ‘urban areas’ comes
to nearly 70% of NZ’s population-Auckland alone has 28% of the entire
population. Despite its rural base, New Zealand is in fact very much an urban
The most common religion in New Zealand is Christianity. The ‘big three’
denominations are Anglican (Church of England) with 25% of the population,
Presbyterian with 18% and Roman Catholic with 16%. Many other denominations
also have followings, with Methodists, Baptists. Mormons, Brethren, Jehovah’s
Witnesses, Pentecostals, Assemblies of God and Seventh Day Adventists all well
represented, along with various other faiths including Hindus, Jews, Muslims
and Baha’is. The Ratana and Ringatu faiths, also with significant followings,
are Maori adaptations of Christianity.
There are also a significant number of people (16.7%) who
have no religion.
New Zealanders place a high value on education,
and virtually the entire population is literate. By law, education is
mandatory and free for all children between the ages of six and 15; in fact
most children enter school by the age of five, and many also have attended
preschools before that, all subsidized by the state. Correspondence school is
available for children who live in remote places.
New Zealand has seven
universities, a number of teachers’ colleges and polytechnics and one
agricultural college. A new and growing facet of education in New Zealand is
that it is gaining a reputation, especially in Asian countries, as a good place
to learn English. There are numerous language schools throughout New Zealand
(but most are in Auckland) and student visas are available which permit foreign
students to study in New Zealand for up to foul’ years.
New Zealand has two official languages: English
and Maori. English is the language that you usually hear spoken. The Maori
language, long on the decline, is now making a comeback. You can use English to
speak to anyone in New Zealand, as Maori people speak English. There are some
occasions, though, when knowing a little Maori would be very useful, such as
if you visit a mare, where often only Maori is spoken. It’s also useful to know
since many places in New Zealand have Maori names.
People from the northern hemisphere never seem to become
completely familiar with upside-down seasons. To them Christmas simply doesn’t
fall in the middle of summer and how is it possible to have mid-winter
cold in August?
Public holiday’s inc1ude:
New Year’s Day and the next day (1st and 2nd)
Waitangi Day or New Zealand Day (6th)
March or April
Good Friday Easter Monday
Anzac Day (25th)
Queen’s Birthday (1st Monday)
Labor Day (4th Monday)
Christmas Day and Boxing Day (25th & 26th)
Newspapers and Magazines
There is no national paper although the New Zealand Herald (Auckland),
the Dominion (Wellington) and the Press (Christchurch) all have
wide circulations. Backing up the city newspapers are numerous local dailies,
same OK, some not. The closest to a national weekly news magazine is the Listener,
an excellent publication which provides a weekly TV & radio guide, plus
in-depth articles on the arts, social issues and politics. The international
publications such as Time and Newsweek are available almost
Radio and TV
There are two national noncommercial radio
stations and many regional 01′ local commercial stations, broadcasting on the
AM and FM banes.
There are three commercial TV
stations (Channels One, Two & Three) plus Sky, a subscriber television
service with news, sports, and movie and documentary channels.
New Zealand has a multi-faceted arts scene with both Maori
and Pakeha engaged in all kinds of traditional and modern arts. Although there
are distinct ‘Maori arts’ and ‘Pakeha .arts’, in fact there is rarely a
division in who practices which arts. There are Pakeha people who enjoy carving
In bone and painting in traditionally Maori styles; Maori songs, poi dances,
and a little bit of Maori language are taught In schools and all New Zealand
children, regardless of background, learn them. Likewise, there are many Maori
people who excel in the traditionally Pakeha arts — there are Maori in theatre,
music and many European art forms. Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, a Maori, is one of the
world’s best known operatic divas, and there are many other examples.
New Zealand literature,
especially, is an arena in which the Maori are making a strong mark — though
the written word was not traditionally apart of Maori culture NZ is
experiencing a movement of dynamic Maori writing in fiction, non-fiction,
poetry and every other written form.
Maori arts are dramatic in many ways, and they
include various arts that people of European backgrounds might not be familiar
Traditionally the Maori did not
keep a written history; their history was kept in long, very specific and
stylized songs and chants. As in many parts of the world where oral history has
been practiced, oratory, song and chant developed to a magnificent art in
Maori culture. The many rituals associated with Maori protocol are also quite
stylized- if you ever visit a mare and are greeted with the traditional haka
(war chant) and wero (challenge), you will appreciate how artistic
they are. The Maori arts of song and dance include so me special features such
as the poi dance and action songs. Martial arts, using a variety of
traditional weapons and movements, are highly stylized and developed
Maori arts inc1ude crafts such as wood, bone and jade carving, basketry and
weaving, including a distinctive form of wall paneling known as tukutuku, which
can be seen on mare and in Maori churches. Wood carvings, tukutuku wall panels
and distinctive styles of painting (especially on the rafters and ceilings)
can be seen in most Maori meeting houses. These traditional Maori arts are not
used only on the mare, though — wood and bone carving, painting, basketry and
various other arts are being used in both traditional and new ways, creating
some vibrant artistic works.
New Zealand has an active literary scene, with a
number of modem authors and a few old c1assics. Probably the most
internationally known New Zealand writer is still Katherine Mansfield
(1888-1923), who was born and raised in New Zealand and later moved to England,
where she spent most of her short adult life and did most of her writing.
Frank Sargeson (1903-82) is
another c1assic New Zealand author. Within the country he is probably as well
known as Mansfield, especially for his three-volume autobiography, his novels
and many short stories, but since he lived all his life in New Zealand, his
work did not become as widely known internationally.
Maurice Shadbolt is the author
of several fine historical novels a bout New Zealand — so far he’ s published
nine novels, foul’ collections of short stories and several nonfiction books.
His best known novel is probably The Season of the Jew, which won the NZ
Wattie Book of the Year Award in 1987 and was chosen by the NY Times as
one of the best books of that year. This book follows a dispossessed band of
Maori who identify with the Jews of ancient Israel.
Janet Frame is another popular novelist, poet and short story writer. Her
three-volume autobiography (To the 1sland, An Angel at my Table and
Envoy from Mirror City) was made famous by the film An Angel at my
Table by acc1aimed local director, Jane Campion. Janet Frame: An
Autobiography is a fascinating insight to her life, and her many works are
Other favorite New Zealand
authors include Maurice Gee, whose novel Going West won the NZ Wattie
Book Award in 1993; Fiona Kidman (The Book of Secrets); Owen Marshall (Tomorrow
We Save the Orphans); Philip Temple (Beak of the Moon); and
Dame Ngaio Marsh (murder mysteries).
The history of New Zealand film doesn’t really begin until
the late 1970s when generous tax breaks were introduced to encourage local
production. From some early stumbling attempts, notable feature films have
survived the test of time and launched the careers of New Zealand directors and
Sleeping Dogs (1977) is
an accomplished psychological drama that was at the forefront of the new film
industry, and which launched the careers of actor Sam Neill and director Roger
New Zealand films moved into
art-house cinemas with Vincent Ward’s Vigil (1984), a blooding film
about a girl’s coming of age in the rain-drenched back blocks of New Zealand.
It proved too ponderously artistic for many Kiwi film-goers but wowed them at
Cannes. Ward’s follow-up The Navigator (1988) is a strange modern
medieval hunt for the Holy Grail.
New Zealand’s best known director, though Australian based
and trained, is Jane Campion. Her greatest films explore New Zealand
themes. An Angel at My Table (1990), based on Kiwi writer Janet Frame’s
autobiography, shows all the fine character development typical of her films
Campion’s masterpiece, The Piano (1993), about the trials of a mute
woman in New Zealand’s pioneer days, received Cannes and Academy A ward
success. Suddenly the world noticed New Zealand’s already accomplished movie
Indus try. Once Were Warriors (1994), a brutal tale of modern.
Urban Maori life, stunned movie-goers around the world. Heavenly Creatures, directed
by Peter Jackson, also achieved critical acclaim. It is based on a famous case
of matricide in the 1950s committed by two schoolgirls.
Zealand stretches 1600 km from north to south it consists of two large islands
around which are scattered a number of smaller islands, plus a few far-flung
islands hundreds of km away. The North Island (115,000 sq km) and the South
Island (151,000 sq km) are the two major land masses. A notable feature of New
Zealand’s geography is the country’s great number of rivers. The Waikato River
in the North Island is New Zealand’s longest river, measuring in at 425 km. New
Zealand also has a number of beautiful lakes; Lake Taupo is the largest and
lakes Waikaremoana and Wanaka are two of the most beautiful. As is the case for
most Pacific islands, New Zealand’s native flora & fauna are, for the most
part, not found anywhere else in the world. And, like other Pacific islands,
NZ’s native ecosystem has been dramatically affected and changed by plants and
animals brought by settlers, mostly in the last 200 years.
Much of New Zealand’s unique flora & fauna has survived,
but today over 150 native plants -10% of the total number of native species —
and many native birds are threatened with extinction.
governmental structure of New Zealand is modeled on the British parliamentary
system, elections being based on universal adult suffrage. The minimum voting
age is 18 and candidates are elected by secret ballot.
New Zealand and Australian flags are very much alike. With the British flag in
the top left-hand corner, the New Zealanders show the stars of the Southern
Cross in red on a blue field. New Zealand’s population of around 3,5 million
most common religion in New Zealand is Christianity. New Zealanders place a
high value on education, and virtually the entire population is literate. New
Zealand has seven universities, a number of teachers’ colleges and
polytechnics and one agricultural college. New Zealand has two official
languages: English and Maori.
Zealand has a multi-faceted arts scene with both Maori and Pakeha engaged in
all kinds of traditional and modern arts. Maori arts are dramatic in many ways,
and they include various arts that people of European backgrounds might not be
Zealand has an active literary scene, with a number of modem authors and a few
Probably the most internationally known New Zealand writer is still Katherine
history of New Zealand film doesn’t really begin until the late 1970s when
generous tax breaks were introduced to encourage local production. From some
early stumbling attempts, notable feature films have survived the test of time
and launched the careers of New Zealand directors and actors.
Coastline береговая линия
Film industry кинопроизводство
Martial arts военные
Tax breaks налоговые
Voting age возрастной
1. Spotlight on English-speaking countries
N.Timanovskaya , изд. .Автограф, 1998.
2. Longman Dictionary of English Language
and Culture Pearson Educated Limited, 1998.