Презентация рематического подлежащего в газетном стиле
Language means which we choose for communication depend on several factors, the most important among them being the situation of the communication act. Indeed, depending on the situation (which includes the purpose of the communication and its participants) we adhere either to informal, or to formal manner. The former is observed in everyday non-official communication which is known as colloquial speech. Colloquial speech occupies a prominent place in our lives, and is viewed by some linguists as a system of language means so strongly differing from those presented in the formal (literary) communication that it can be classified as an independent entity with its own peculiar units and rules of their structuring.
The literary communication, most often (but not always) materialized in the written form, is not homogeneous, and proceeding from its function (purpose) we speak of different functional styles. As the whole of the language itself, functional styles are also changeable. Their quantity and quality change in the course of their development. At present most scholars differentiate such functional styles: scientific, official, publicist, newspaper, belles-lettres
The aim of this study is to analyse presentation of rhematic subject in
Style is depth, deviations, choice, context style restricted linguistic variation, style is the man himself (Buffon). According to Galperin the term ‘style’ refers to the following spheres:
1) the aesthetic function of language
It may be seen in works of art- poetry, imaginative prose, fiction, but works of science, technical instruction or business correspondence have no aesthetic value.
2) synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea
The possibility of choice of using different words in similar situations is connected with the question of style as if the form changes, the contents changes too and the style may be different.
3) expressive means in language – are employed mainly in the following spheres – poetry, fiction, colloquial speech, speeches but not in scientific articles, business letters and others.
4) emotional coloring in language
Very many types of texts are highly emotional – declaration of love, funeral oration, poems(verses), but a great number of texts is unemotional or non-emphatic (rules in textbooks).
5) a system of special devices called stylistic devices
The style is formed with the help of characteristic features peculiar to it. Many texts demonstrate various stylistic features:
She wears ‘fashion’ = what she wears is fashionable or is just the fashion methonimy.
6) the individual manner of an author in making use the individual style of speaking, writing must be investigated with the help of common rules and generalization.
Galperin distinguishes five styles in present-day English:
- Belles Lettres
- Publicistic Style
- Scientific Prose
- Official Documents
He didn’t single out a colloquial style. Its created by the work of the author –the result of creative activity.
Newspaper style, as it is evident from its name, is found in newspapers. You should not conclude though that everything published in a newspaper should be referred to the newspaper style. The paper contains vastly varying materials, some of them being publicist essays, some – feature articles, some – scientific reviews, some – official stock-exchange accounts etc., so that a daily (weekly) newspaper also offers a variety of styles. When we mention «newspaper style», we mean informative materials, characteristic of newspaper only and not found in other publications. To attract the reader’s attention to the news, special graphical means are used. British and American papers are notorious for the change of type, specific headlines, space ordering, etc. We find here a large proportion of dates and personal names of countries, territories, institutions, individuals. To achieve the effect of objectivity and impartiality in rendering some fact or event, most of the newspaper information is published anonymously, without the name of the newsman who supplied it, with little or no subjective modality. But the position and attitude of the paper, nonetheless, become clear from the choice not only of the subject-matter but also of the words denoting international or domestic issues. Newspaper style was the last of all the styles of written litеrаrу English to bе recognized as а specific form of writing standing apart from other forms. English newspaper writing dates from the 17th century, when short news pamphlets began to арреаг, and though they couldn’t bе classed as newspapers, they were unquestionably the immediate forerunners of the British press. The first of аnу regular series of English newspapers was the Week/y News which first appeared оn Мау 23, 1622. The first English daily newspaper – the Daily Couraпt – was